Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Glossary

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Name Definition
Leucine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as LEU.

Lignin

Lignin, usually measured by the Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL) method or by the permanganate method described by Van Soest.

LW

Abbreviation for live weight (or liveweight).

Lysine

Amino acid. One of the main essential amino acids in animal nutrition. Often abbreviated as LYS.

Magnesium

A chemical element (symbol Mg). Magnesium is usually a macro mineral in biological materials.

Manganese

A chemical element (symbol Mn). Usually a trace elements in biological materials.

ME ruminants

Metabolizable energy for ruminants. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, not corrected for N retention.

ME ruminants (FAO, 1982)

Metabolizable energy predicted by the equations proposed by FAO in the book Tropical feeds. These values are provided until their replacement by newer ones.

ME ruminants (gas production)

Metabolizable energy for ruminants estimated from the volume of gas produced after 24 hour of incubation (GP, ml/200mg DM) and the proportion of crude protein (CP, % DM) as established by Menke and Steingass (1988): ME (MJ/kg DM) = 2.2 + 0.1357 GP + 0.0057 CP + 0.0002859 CP2

MEn growing pig

Metabolizable energy, N-corrected, for growing pigs. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for a N balance of 0.

MEn rabbit

Apparent metabolizable energy for rabbits, corrected for a nitrogen balance of 0. This value is obtained by equation from the digestible energy (DE) and digestible crude protein (DCP):  MEn (MJ/kg DM) = 0.995 DE (MJ/kg DM) -0.048 DCP (% DM)  (Perez et al., 1998)

Methionine

A sulphur amino acid. Usually abbreviated as MET.

NDF

NDF, fraction of the cell walls according to Van Soest, considered to be roughly equivalent to hemicellulose, true cellulose and lignin.

NE growing pig

Net energy for growing pig. Difference between the metabolizable energy and the energy lost in heat during metabolization process.

Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%)

Effective degradability of nitrogen in ruminants, calculated with a hourly disappearance rate of 4%. The effective degradability is calculated as D = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)) where a = fraction immediately degradable, b = fraction potentially degradable, c = degradation rate of particles and k = hourly disappearance rate of particles (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%)

Effective degradability of nitrogen in ruminants, calculated with a hourly disappearance rate of 6%. The effective degradability is calculated as D = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)) where a = fraction immediately degradable, b = fraction potentially degradable, c = degradation rate of particles and k = hourly disappearance rate of particles (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig

Nitrogen digestibility for the growing pig, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) nitrogen relative to the nitrogen content of the feed.

Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit

Nitrogen digestibility for the rabbit, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) nitrogen relative to the nitrogen content of the feed.

Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants

Nitrogen digestibility for ruminants, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) nitrogen relative to the nitrogen content of the feed.

Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids

Nitrogen digestibility for salmonids (salmons and trouts), calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) nitrogen relative to the nitrogen content of the feed.

OM

Organic matter. Difference between dry matter and ash (mineral content).

OM digestibility, pepsin

Organic matter digestibility estimated by an in vitro method using pepsin, such as the one developed by Tilley and Terry (1963), which involves rumen liquor and pepsin.

OM digestibility, pepsin-cellulase

Organic matter digestibility estimated by an in vitro method combining pepsin and a cellulase enzyme.

OM digestibility, ruminants

Organic matter digestibility for ruminants, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) organic matter in the organic matter of the feed.

OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production)

Organic matter digestibility for ruminants estimated from the volume of gas produced after 24 hour of incubation (GP, ml/200mg DM) and the proportion of crude protein (CP, % DM) as established by Menke and Steingass (1988): OMD (%) = 24.91 + 0.72222 GP + 0.0815 CP

Organic matter

Difference between dry matter and ash (mineral content).

Pectins

Structural polysaccharides found in plant cell walls.

PEG

Abbreviation for polyethylene glycol. PEG is a polyether compound with industrial many applications in different fields, including animal nutrition. Because PEG forms stable complexes with tannins, thereby preventing the binding between tannins and proteins, it is widely used to reduce the detrimental effect of condensed tannins in ruminant diets.

Phenylalanine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as PHE.

Phosphorus

A major mineral (symbol P) essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology and for the mineralization of bone, teeth and shells. In plants, phosphorus is mostly stored in phytic acid.

Potassium

A major mineral (symbol K) essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology.

Proline

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as PRO.

Serine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as SER.

Sodium

A major mineral (symbol Na) essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology.

Specific viscosity (AFNOR)

Relative viscosity of a grain water extract (AFNOR NF V 03-749 November 1999), calculated from the ratio VR of the flowing time or the extract / flowing time of the solvant (deionized water). VS = (VR-1)*volume of water/dry weight of grains (expressed in ml/g DM).

Starch (enzymatic)

Starch measured by an enzymatic method (amyloglucosidase)

Starch (polarimetry)

Starch measured by polarimetry, usually the Ewers method, 3rd EEC directive 72/199 modified 27/11/1980.

Tannins (eq. tannic acid)

Tannins, obtained by methods aiming to assess "total" tannins, including the Daibler method (ferric ammonium citrate, NF V03 751) or the Folin-Denis method.

Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin)

Condensed tannins, non hydrolysable, based on leuco-anthocyanidins, usually obtained by a vanilin-HCl method and expressed in catechin equivalents.

Threonine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as THR.

TME poultry

True metabolizable energy for poultry. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for endogenous losses.

TMEn poultry

True metabolizable energy, N-corrected, Poultry. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for a nitrogen retention and endogenous losses.

Total sugars

Total sugars, obtained by various methods

Tryptophan

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as TRY.

Tyrosine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as TYR.

Valine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as VAL.

Water-soluble carbohydrates

Water-soluble carbohydrates

Zinc

A chemical element (symbol Zn). Usually a trace elements in biological materials.

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