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Breadnut (Brosimum alicastrum)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Noix-pain, breadnut, noyer à pain, apompo, capomo, ojoche, ramón

Synonyms 

Alicastrum brownei Kuntze, Brosimum uleanum Mildbr., Helicostylis bolivarensis Pittier, Piratinera alicastrum (Sw.) Baill.

Related feed(s) 
Description 

Evergreen tree up to 30 m high

Distribution 

Native to tropical America.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Used in some countries as a fodder tree during the dry season. The leaves, seeds and entire fruits are eaten by animals.

Pigs 

One tree can produce about 40 kg of seeds, which are relished by pigs.

Rabbits 

Forage

Fresh leaves of Brosimum alicastrum are a potential forage for rabbits with about 14 to 17% proteins in dry matter and a classical fibre content for a forage (36-50% NDF and 5.5 to 7% ADL in DM). As it was observed for most of the wild or domestic herbivorous animals (Carter, 2015), these leaves are more relished by rabbits than most of the other tropical forages (Cruz-Bacab, 2013; Safwat et al, 2014). Feeding B. alicastrum fresh leaves ad libitum  to growing rabbits in addition to a concentrate also ad libitum, resulted in insignificantly higher daily weight gain (24.7 g/d) than the Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves used in the same conditions (23.8 g/d). The spontaneous proportion of B. alicastrum leaves in the daily total dry matter intake was 26 to 38% according to the experiment (Martinez et al., 2010). Fresh leaves of B alicastrum may replace 50% of the rabbit concentrate with only a small reduction of the growth rate (less than 10%) and a reduction of carcass of only 3% (Serrano-Sibrian et al., 2016).

Determination of digestibility of leaves used as only feed, resulted in a value of 9.58 MJ/kg DM for digestible energy and a digestibility of proteins of 61.4% (Martinez et al., 2010), values which are close to those generally admitted for alfalfa meal for example. In addition, energy digestibility values are not affected by the incorporation level of dried B. alicatrum leaves in balanced diets at 20 -40 or 60% (Rojas , 2008).

Fruits and seed

No information seems available in the international literature on the use of Brosimum alicastrum fruits or seeds in rabbit feeding (March 2017). Nevertheless fruits and seeds were commonly used by pre-Columbian Maya human populations (Gillespie et al ., 2004) and can be used with success to feed cattle, sheep, goats, pigs and horses (Peters et al, 1982; Yates et al., 2004) or poultry as well (Carter , 2015).Thus this products of the B. alicastrum tree must be considered as a suitable feed source for rabbits also. Composition of seeds is comparable to that of cereals such as maize, barley or wheat (12-13% crude proteins and about 5% crude fibre in DM), and most probably could be used in the same manner in rabbit feeding. The only important remark is the important lysine deficiency of B. alicastrum seed's proteins associated with a large amount of sulphur amino acids, more than 2 times greater than that of wheat or maize (Gomez-Pompa, 1980).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 38.9 1
Crude protein % DM 13.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 26.5 1
Ether extract % DM 3.4 1
Ash % DM 7.9 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Barnett, 1926

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:50

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 15.5 1
Crude protein % DM 20.1 1
Crude fibre % DM 11.6 1
Ether extract % DM 5.3 1
Ash % DM 6.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 71.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Calvino, 1952

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:50

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 42.5 1
Crude protein % DM 14.0 1
Crude fibre % DM 5.6 1
Ether extract % DM 2.9 1
Ash % DM 3.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 81.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Calvino, 1952

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:51

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/175 Last updated on March 28, 2017, 10:39

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