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Shrimp meal

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Shrimp meal, shrimp waste, shrimp heads, shrimp shells, shrimp processing waste

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Shrimp meal or shrimp waste meal is the undecomposed ground dried waste of shrimp. There are several types of shrimp meal on the market depending on the kind of raw material used. It can contain whole shrimps and/or shrimp parts such as the heads or shells. Shrimp meal may also be made of fresh water shrimps. Shrimp meal is a by-product of the shrimp industry. Approximately 70% of total shrimp landings become waste, so there is a tremendous tonnage of shrimp waste produced. A portion of the crude protein that is contained in shrimp meal is in the form of chitin, which is not readily digestible (Göhl, 1982).

Processes 

Shrimp meal is manufactured by sun-drying or oven-drying. The fresh material may also be boiled or steamed before drying. The dried product is marketed unground or ground. Wet (raw or ensiled) shrimp material may also be co-extruded with soybean meal. Because of its high level of chitin, shrimp meal has poor pelletizing ability (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Environmental impact 

Using shrimp meal as a feedstuff is a part of waste management in the shrimp industry.

Nutritional aspects
Ruminants 

Shrimp by-products can be fed to sheep and cattle.

Cattle

Shrimp meal was found to be a valuable feedstuff for dairy cows since it is well accepted and have no deleterious effect on milk quality (Lush, 1936).

Sheep

Feeding lambs with shrimp shell waste mixed with Streptococcus milleri (a chitin-degrading bacterium) did not alter animal performance and decreased feed cost (Cobos et al., 2006). However, in Nigeria, shrimp meal as a supplement to soybean stover and Panicum maximum-based diets for sheep did not give as good results as those obtained with other ingredients (Oduguwa et al., 2006).

Pigs 

The protein value of shrimp meal is moderate for pigs (Fanimo et al., 2006). The high level of chitin has a depressive effect on digestibility. Authors recommended not totally replacing fish meal with shrimp meal in pig diets (Fanimo et al., 2004; Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001). Maximum replacement level should be 50% of fish meal protein (Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001). However, shrimp meal was also found to have stimulatory effects on growth (Nguyen Quang Linh et al., 2003).

Poultry 

Shrimp meal is a valuable ingredient for poultry.

Broilers

Shrimp meal can replace fish meal or soybean meal in broiler diets. The replacement rates recommended range from 25 to 66% for fish meal (Ingweye et al., 2008; Fanimo et al., 1998) and from 50 to 100% for soybean meal (Agunbiade et al., 2004; Rosenfeld et al., 1997). However, shrimp meal replacement of fish meal or soybean meal was found to cause lower animal performances (Oduguwa et al., 2004; Khempaka et al., 2006).

As a protein source used to supplement maize-soybean meal-based diets, recommendations range from 5% (Cunha et al., 2006) to 10% (Okoye et al., 2005).

Shrimp meal is also used as a pigmentation agent in broilers: a 6% dietary level added to a wheat-soybean meal-based diet resulted in good skin pigmentation (Chawan et al., 1974).

Laying hens

Inclusion levels varying from 4% (Oduguwa et al., 2005) to 25% in the diet (Carranco et al., 2006; Carranco et al., 2003) did not alter animal performance and egg quality. High replacement levels of fish meal by shrimp meal can result in lower feed conversion ratios (Gernat, 2001).

Ducks

Shrimp meal can be included at up to 20% in duck diets (van der Meulen et al., 2004), but ensiled shrimp meal should not replace more than 3% of fish meal (Nguyen et al., 2005).

Rabbits 

Rabbits can be fed shrimp meal instead of other protein sources. Shrimp waste meal is palatable to rabbits and results in higher feed conversion ratios. Rabbit meat is also more tender (Fanimo et al., 2002).

Fish 

Shrimp meal is a good ingredient for fish because of its high crude protein content and digestibility (84.29% when feeding Macrobrachium rosenbergii and 89.68% when feeding Clarias batrachus) (Göhl, 1982). It is also reported to stimulate fish growth (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Shrimp meal is used as a pigmentation agent. Farmed Red porgy (Pagrus pagrus) fed 16% shrimp meal in the diet achieved similar skin colour to wild Red porgy (Kalinowski et al., 2007). It gives a reddish pigmentation to rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) muscles.

In African catfish (Clarias gariepinus), chemically preserved shrimp heads were reported to profitably replace fish meal at 20% of the diet (Nwanna, 2003). Fermented shrimp meal included at 30% of the diet gave the best profit margins (Nwanna et al., 2004).

For sex-reversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), shrimp meal can replace 50 to 100% fish meal without altering fish performances (Chimsung et al., 2006; Mansour, 1998 cited by El-Sayed, 2006; El-Sayed, 1998).

In blue Tilapia (Oreochromis aureus), inclusion of shrimp meal up to 6% of the diet had no negative impact on animal performance (Nwanna et al., 2000 cited by El-Sayed, 2006).

In Nile Tilapia, different forms of shrimp by-products are reported to give good results in fish feeding:

  • Shrimp meal improved tilapia performance when replacing cassava leaf meal (Nieves, 1991).
  • Shrimp head silage protein hydrolysate replaced up to 10-15% of the fishmeal and resulted in a better performance and feed conversion ratio. It was very palatable to Tilapia (Plascencia-Jatomea et al., 2002).
  • Fresh water shrimp meal replaced 100% of the fish meal in Kenya, without altering Tilapia performances grown under semi-intensive conditions (Munguti et al., 2009).

In Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis), shrimp meal can replace fish meal and can be included at up to 10% in the diet. However, higher levels compromised growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio (Rachmansyah et al., 2004).

Crustaceans 

Shrimp meal is a standard component of diets for shrimps and other crustaceans. It is very palatable and diets can contain between 10% (omnivorous) to 20% (carnivorous) shrimp meal (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Chitin contained in shrimp meal is believed to have a growth promoting effect in shrimps. The fat content of whole shrimp meal contains 10% cholesterol, which is beneficial to shrimps as they are not able to synthesize cholesterol (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 47.9 36.1 59.8 2
Crude fibre % DM 10.6 1
Ether extract % DM 3.9 1.6 6.1 2
Ash % DM 40.6 29.8 51.3 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 14.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 130.6 115.1 146.0 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 14.8 13.3 16.4 2
Potassium g/kg DM 4.2 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 12.8 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 73.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.5 2.3 89.4 94.6 4
Crude protein % DM 52.3 9.3 37.9 60.5 5
Crude fibre % DM 9.2 4.9 2.1 13.1 4
NDF % DM 11.4 1
Ether extract % DM 4.6 1.7 2.5 6.4 5
Ash % DM 29.3 12.4 15.8 49.7 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 14.5 19.6 2
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 117.5 29.3 84.0 138.8 3
Phosphorus g/kg DM 10.7 8.0 1.5 15.8 3
Potassium g/kg DM 6.4 1.4 5.0 7.8 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 8.1 2.6 6.6 11.1 3
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 75.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Laining et al., 2004; Qiao ShiYan et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.3 89.4 93.1 2
Crude protein % DM 49.1 32.3 65.9 2
Crude fibre % DM 3.7 1
Ether extract % DM 2.8 1.6 4.0 2
Ash % DM 21.7 19.0 24.5 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 9.8 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.9 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 2.3 1
Histidine % protein 0.6 1
Isoleucine % protein 1.5 1
Leucine % protein 2.4 1
Lysine % protein 2.4 1
Phenylalanine % protein 5.8 1
Tryptophan % protein 0.5 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.4 1
Valine % protein 1.8 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 84.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Nwanna, 2003; Plascencia-Jatomea et al., 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 25.2 1
Crude protein % DM 41.9 1
ADF % DM 28.3 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 123.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 21.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Evers et al., 1996

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.3 5.0 80.1 97.3 8
Crude protein % DM 43.6 11.1 34.0 63.8 15
Crude fibre % DM 8.5 6.1 1.6 16.1 5
ADF % DM 21.4 1
Ether extract % DM 6.1 4.6 1.4 17.0 10
Ash % DM 22.5 10.6 6.3 36.5 9
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 128.5 31.0 93.4 170.9 5
Phosphorus g/kg DM 14.3 8.4 4.9 20.8 3
Sodium g/kg DM 15.5 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.2 5.0 3
Arginine % protein 6.0 1.7 4.1 8.1 4
Aspartic acid % protein 9.1 0.6 8.6 9.7 3
Cystine % protein 0.9 0.2 0.7 1.1 4
Glutamic acid % protein 12.0 1.1 11.3 13.2 3
Glycine % protein 4.8 0.5 4.2 5.3 3
Histidine % protein 2.3 0.7 1.6 3.3 4
Isoleucine % protein 4.7 1.3 3.8 6.5 4
Leucine % protein 6.6 1.2 5.5 8.0 4
Lysine % protein 5.7 1.1 4.2 6.7 4
Methionine % protein 2.5 0.4 2.0 2.9 4
Phenylalanine % protein 7.5 3.4 4.4 11.1 4
Proline % protein 3.9 0.4 3.4 4.2 3
Serine % protein 4.0 0.4 3.6 4.4 3
Threonine % protein 3.9 0.7 3.1 4.5 4
Tryptophan % protein 1.1 0.1 1.0 1.1 3
Tyrosine % protein 3.8 0.8 2.8 4.7 4
Valine % protein 4.9 0.2 4.7 5.1 4
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 76.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Choubert et al., 1983; El-Sayed, 1998; Fanimo et al., 2004; Göhl, 1982; Mu et al., 2000; Munguti et al., 2009; Nguyen Quang Linh et al., 2003; Watkins et al., 1982

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 28.0 1
Crude protein % DM 26.9 1
Ether extract % DM 2.8 1
Ash % DM 21.0 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 65.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 10.0 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Lysine % protein 5.9 1
Methionine % protein 2.6 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.3 1
Crude protein % DM 63.5 53.5 73.6 2
Crude fibre % DM 1.2 1
Ether extract % DM 5.0 3.4 6.6 2
Ash % DM 17.7 16.8 18.6 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 18.9 7.4 30.3 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 7.2 3.1 11.3 2
Potassium g/kg DM 1.4 1
Sodium g/kg DM 2.9 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.2 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 15 1
Iron mg/kg DM 28 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 7.9 1
Cystine % protein 1.2 1
Glycine % protein 7.8 1
Histidine % protein 1.8 1
Isoleucine % protein 4.3 1
Leucine % protein 7.3 1
Lysine % protein 7.4 1
Methionine % protein 3.0 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 1
Threonine % protein 4.5 1
Tryptophan % protein 0.9 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.5 1
Valine % protein 4.7 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Gaulier. R., 1970; Ojewola et al., 2005

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:17

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Shrimp meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/202 Last updated on October 6, 2015, 16:54

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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