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Feather meal

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Feather meal, feathermeal, hydrolyzed feather meal, poultry feather meal, hydrolyzed poultry feather meal

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Feathers are a by-product of broiler, turkey and poultry processing operations. Variability of feather meal between batches and between plants can be quite high due to differences in what is included (heads, feet, skin, etc.).

Processes 

Pressurized cooking of feathers is the primary method of processing used in preparing feather meal. Some bacteria have been identified that produce a feather digesting enzyme, that will convert the protein fraction into a digestible form (Shih, 1993). Pepsin digestibility is used as method of assessing the quality of feather meal. Normally a pepsin digestibility of 75 % is considered to be a minimum value to assure that the feather meal has been adequately processed.

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

Feather meals needs to be tested (pepsin digestibility) to assure that it has been processed properly. Care need to be taken to select other supplemental protein sources that will complement to poor amino acid profile of the feather meal, when formulating rations.

Ruminants 

Calves

Feeding a combination of feather and blood meals resulted in the best growth in calves (Blasi et al., 1991). When feather meal was incorporated into liquid supplements to replace a portion of the CP provided by urea, average daily gain and reproductive performance was improved in mature beef cows (Pate et al., 1995). Calves fed feather meal as their primary supplemental protein didn't respond to when supplemental lysine or methionine was fed (Klemesrud et al., 1998).

Dairy cattle

Feather meal has been found to be an effective supplemental protein source for lactating dairy cattle (Harris et al., 1992). Combination of feather meal and blood meal was shown to be acceptable as a protein source in dairy cattle (Johnson et al., 1994). Feeding a combination of feather meal and blood meal was found to increase milk production in dairy cattle (Grant et al., 1998).

Sheep

The rate of gain in lambs was increased when feather meal replaced soybean meal (Thomas et al., 1994). Feather meal was found to increase ADG when it replaced soybean meal and urea in sheep diets (Punsri, 1991). Supplementation with feather meal showed no effect on straw digestion in lambs (Thomas et al., 1994). Wool fiber diameter and sulfur content of wool didn't differ in lambs fed feather meal (Thomas et al., 1994).

Pigs 

Swine feeding trials found that when feather meal replaced soybean meal that ADG and FC declined (Duangsmorn Sinchermsiri et al., 1989). High levels (5 and 7.5 %) of dietary feather meal decreased digestibility of DM and CP, decreased loin eye area, decreased FC and decreased feed intake in swine (Rachan Buaban, 1988). Feather meal when fed up to 10% of diet didn't was not found to affect DDM or DCP of the diet in swine (Rachan Buaban et al., 1989). In growing-finishing swine rations feather meal could provide up to 25 % of the dietary protein with significantly affecting performance (Khajarern et al., 1982b). No difference in performance was observed when up to 4 % feather meal was fed to swine 0-4 weeks of age and up to 8 % could be fed to the 4 to 8 week old age group (Khajarern et al., 1982b). Levels up to 10 % of feather meal in the diets of swine didn't affect total diet DM or CP digestibility, but as feather meal increased the Biological Value of the dietary CP decreased (Rachan Buaban et al., 1989).

Poultry 

Broilers and laying hens

Pullets fed feather meal was found to grow satisfactorily, the addition of methionine was found to improve performance (Khajarern et al., 1982a). The effect of supplementing feather meal with 0.2 to 0.5 % methionine was found to increase carcass quality in broilers and egg weight and shell thickness in layers (Miranda et al., 1981)

Ducks

Feather meal can provide up to 50 % of the supplemental protein for young growing duckling, 100 % for older growing ducks and 50 % in ducks that are laying (Sucheep Suksupath, 1980).

Fish 

In carps, feather meal was found to between poultry by-product meal and blood meal in its feeding value (Trzebiatowski et al., 1982).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.1 1.9 88.3 95.7 107
Crude protein % DM 85.7 5.0 73.8 96.5 118
Crude fibre % DM 0.9 0.6 0.3 2.9 18
NDF % DM 55.8 1.9 53.8 57.5 3
ADF % DM 6.5 2.9 2.0 11.7 10
Lignin % DM 5.5 2.2 4.1 8.0 3
Ether extract % DM 6.7 2.5 2.5 13.6 46
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 9.5 1.8 4.8 12.9 57
Ash % DM 5.5 3.8 1.3 16.0 115
Total sugars % DM 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 23.5 0.4 22.7 24.0 18 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 12.7 4.1 3.6 16.8 22 *
Phosphorus g/kg DM 8.2 1.9 2.6 8.8 22 *
Potassium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.5 10
Sodium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 1.0 1.4 10
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.9 1.3 0.4 4.5 10
Manganese mg/kg DM 16 6 7 21 7
Zinc mg/kg DM 142 20 106 157 7
Copper mg/kg DM 10 1 7 11 6
Iron mg/kg DM 625 213 246 833 6
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.6 0.3 4.1 5.3 19
Arginine % protein 6.7 0.4 5.6 7.4 24
Aspartic acid % protein 6.7 0.2 6.5 7.0 19
Cystine % protein 4.3 0.3 4.0 5.0 23
Glutamic acid % protein 10.6 0.9 8.6 11.6 19
Glycine % protein 7.3 0.5 6.1 8.3 21
Histidine % protein 0.8 0.2 0.5 1.4 24
Isoleucine % protein 4.9 0.4 3.5 5.3 25
Leucine % protein 8.0 0.5 7.3 9.2 26
Lysine % protein 2.1 0.2 1.7 2.6 27
Methionine % protein 0.7 0.1 0.6 1.0 26
Phenylalanine % protein 4.7 0.4 3.9 5.4 25
Proline % protein 9.4 0.3 8.8 10.0 17
Serine % protein 11.4 0.9 8.5 12.0 19
Threonine % protein 4.6 0.4 3.7 5.3 26
Tryptophan % protein 0.6 0.1 0.5 0.8 7
Tyrosine % protein 2.5 0.3 2.1 3.3 18
Valine % protein 7.2 1.1 5.1 8.1 25
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 76.8 4.1 72.0 82.7 6
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 82.6 1.0 71.0 82.6 4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 19.4 0.5 15.9 19.4 4 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.3 0.5 13.3 14.5 4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 74.1 5.9 69.0 85.2 6
a (N) % 15.8 1
b (N) % 48.3 1
c (N) h-1 0.055 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 44 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 39 28 39 2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 20.8 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 18.9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 72.1 71.1 73.0 2
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 12.5 0.5 12.5 14.4 5 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 11.7 *
 
Fish nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, salmonids % 63.7 57.4 70.1 2
Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids % 64.4 58.0 70.8 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; ADAS, 1990; Aderibigbe et al., 1983; AFZ, 2011; Church et al., 1982; Dewar, 1967; Fialho et al., 1995; Furuya et al., 1988; Hajen et al., 1993; Hegedüs et al., 1990; Howie et al., 1996; Huston et al., 1971; Jongbloed et al., 1990; Kamalak et al., 2005; Kellems et al., 1998; Knabe et al., 1989; Knaus et al., 1998; Latshaw et al., 1994; McDowell et al., 1974; Munguti et al., 2009; Nengas et al., 1995; NRC, 1994; Pansri et al., 1987; Papadopoulos et al., 1986; Papadopoulos, 1986; Petit, 1992; Quilici, 1967; Schang et al., 1982; Swanek et al., 2001

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:31

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://feedipedia.org/node/213 Last updated on October 9, 2011, 15:22

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