Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Liver meal from warm-blooded animals

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Liver meal, spray-dried liver, freeze-dried liver

  • Spray-dried pig liver, spray-dried pork liver, freeze-dried pig liver, freeze-dried pork liver
  • Spray-dried chicken liver, freeze-dried chicken liver
  • Spray-dried beef liver, freeze-dried beef liver
Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Liver meal from warm-blooded animals (typically cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry) is a slaughter by-product, made of dried and ground livers that are discarded for human consumption. Liver meal may also contain other by-products such as lungs and hearts. Usual drying methods include spray drying and freeze drying. Livers are not always available separately as they are usually incorporated in meat meals (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

While liver meal was once a relatively common ingredient for farm animals, it is now mostly used in aquaculture (fish and crustaceans) and as a specialty feed for pet and fur-bearing animals (Aoyagi et al., 1995a). Liver meal and liver extracts are also used as fishing bait.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Liver meal is a source of crude protein (50-75%), essential amino acids, fat, water soluble vitamins (B12), cholesterol (Hertrampf et al., 2000) and trace minerals (notably Cu, Fe and Zn) (Aoyagi et al., 1995a). The protein content of the source material does not differ significantly among species. Liver meal fat content varies widely as it depends on the diet fed to the animal before slaughter (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Potential constraints 

Like other animal by-products, livers fed to livestock should be adequately heated in order to prevent the spread of disease agents.

Liver meal is difficult to store because of its relatively high fat content, which readily becomes rancid. It should be stored in cool and dry conditions (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Pigs 

Pigs can be fed on liver meal. Liver meal resulted in faster growth during the initial period of feeding but resulted in lower animal performances and poorer carcass quality in the long-term (Todd et al., 1967).

Poultry 

Liver meal can be used in poultry diets. The digestibility of crude protein and fat is 65% and 91% respectively (Hertrampf et al., 2000). In a comparison with several protein sources (poultry by-product meals, soybean meal, fish protein concentrate, blood products, spray-dried egg), spray-dried pork liver meal gave the second best Protein Efficiency Ratio and average daily gain, after spray-dried eggs, and the highest feed intake and protein intake (Dust et al., 2005).

While liver meal is a potential source of copper (50-70 mg/kg DM), copper from fresh or freeze-dried pork liver is totally unavailable to chicks. Heat and chemical treatments (hydrolysis or enzymatic) improved copper availability (Aoyagi et al., 1995a; Aoyagi et al., 1995b).

Fish 

Liver meal is a valuable feedstuff for fish because it can be incorporated in dried diets (Charlon et al., 1984). At high inclusion levels, however, liver meal can have a deleterious effect on the pellet stability. Inclusion levels in the diet vary from 5-10% for herbivorous fish to 10-15% for carnivorous fish (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Cyprinid larvae of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), big-head carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) can benefit from liver meal feeding. Beef liver meal gave better results than pork liver meal (Hertrampf et al., 2000, Szlaminska et al., 1990).

Crustaceans 

Liver meal can be included at 5-10% in crustaceans diets (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Freshwater prawns

Beef liver included at 15% as a supplement to a commercial diet gave good results with post-larval giant river prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii in aquaria (Garces et al., 1993).

Sea prawns

Tiger prawns (Penaeus monodon) grew better on formulated diets than on fresh beef liver (Kibria, 1993).

Crayfish

In the freshwater signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), pork liver resulted in higher survival rates and growth than phytoplankton (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Lobsters

Juvenile American lobsters (Homarus americanus) had higher survival rates on liver meal than on a purified diet (casein, wheat gluten and spray dried egg) (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Other species 

Liver meal is widely used in pet foods, particularly for dogs and cats. It is included in supplements (5-10% of the formula) and pharmaceutical tablets (ADF, 2011). Freeze-dried beef, pork and chicken liver chunks are popular commercial dog treats.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 96.2 2.9 92.1 98.4 4
Crude protein % DM 71.4 2.4 69.0 73.6 4
Ether extract % DM 13.0 9.4 16.6 2
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 18.6 14.5 22.7 2
Ash % DM 7.9 3.0 4.2 10.4 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 24.3 23.0 25.1 2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.0 0.2 1.8 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 5.9 0.7 11.0 2
Potassium g/kg DM 4.7 1
Sodium g/kg DM 2.3 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.5 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 16 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 167 1
Copper mg/kg DM 14 1
Iron mg/kg DM 1650 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 5.7 0.5 5.2 6.2 3
Cystine % protein 1.2 1
Glycine % protein 8.0 1
Histidine % protein 2.5 0.0 2.4 2.5 3
Isoleucine % protein 4.0 0.0 4.0 4.1 3
Leucine % protein 8.4 0.2 8.3 8.7 3
Lysine % protein 6.6 0.4 6.1 6.9 3
Methionine % protein 2.2 0.1 2.0 2.3 3
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.4 4.4 5.3 3
Threonine % protein 4.0 0.1 3.9 4.1 3
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 0.1 1.1 1.3 3
Tyrosine % protein 3.5 1
Valine % protein 6.0 0.5 5.6 6.5 3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Bredon et al., 1962; De Vuyst et al., 1964; Dust et al., 2005

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 98.4 1
Crude protein % DM 73.6 1
Ether extract % DM 16.6 1
Ash % DM 4.2 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 11.0 1
Potassium g/kg DM 4.7 1
Sodium g/kg DM 2.3 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.5 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 16 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 167 1
Copper mg/kg DM 14 1
Iron mg/kg DM 1650 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:38

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 96.1 1
Crude protein % DM 69.7 1
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 14.5 1
Ash % DM 10.1 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 22.9 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 5.2 1
Histidine % protein 2.5 1
Isoleucine % protein 4.0 1
Leucine % protein 8.7 1
Lysine % protein 6.8 1
Methionine % protein 2.2 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.7 1
Threonine % protein 3.9 1
Tryptophan % protein 1.1 1
Valine % protein 5.8 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Dust et al., 2005

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:38

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 98.3 1
Crude protein % DM 69.0 1
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 22.7 1
Ash % DM 6.8 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 25.3 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 5.8 1
Histidine % protein 2.5 1
Isoleucine % protein 4.1 1
Leucine % protein 8.3 1
Lysine % protein 6.9 1
Methionine % protein 2.3 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 1
Threonine % protein 3.9 1
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 1
Valine % protein 5.6 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Dust et al., 2005

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:38

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Liver meal from warm-blooded animals. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/220 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:32

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
Image credits