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Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Kudzu [English]; puerarie, puéraire, vigne japonaise [French]; sắn dây rừng, đậu ma núi [Vietnamese]; كودزو [Arabic]; 칡 [Korean]; クズ [Japanese]; Пуэра́рия до́льчатая, Пуэрария ло́пастная, кудзу [Russian]; 葛 [Chinese]

Synonyms 

Dolichos hirsutus Thunb., Dolichos lobatus Willd., Dolichos montanus Lour., Glycine javanica L., Neustanthus chinensis Benth., Pachyrhizus thunbergianus Siebold & Zucc., Pueraria hirsuta (Thunb.) Matsum., Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi, Pueraria lobata var. chinensis (Benth.) Ohwi, Pueraria lobata var. montana (Lour.) Maesen, Pueraria lobata var. thomsonii (Benth.) Maesen, Pueraria montana var. chinensis auct., Pueraria omeiensis F. T. Wang & Tang, nom. nud., Pueraria pseudohirsuta Tang & F. T. Wang, nom. nud., Pueraria thomsonii Benth., Pueraria thunbergiana (Siebold & Zucc.) Benth., Pueraria tonkinensis Gagnep., Pueraria triloba (Houtt.) Makino (USDA, 2009)

Feed categories 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Kudzu (Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr.) is a perennial climbing, trailing vine legume with stems up to 30 m long and oblong tubers up to 2 m long and 45 cm in diameter. Leaves are trifoliate, leaflets are ovate (8-26 cm long x 5-22 cm broad) with a hairy lower surface (Praptiwi, 1999). The inflorescence is a pending pseudoraceme up to 35 cm long. Flowers are purple-red with a yellow spot near the base (FAO, 2009). Fruits are hairy pods 5 to 7.5 cm long that contain hard-coated seeds.

Kudzu leaves are an edible vegetable in Asia. Tubers are sometimes considered as famine food in South-East Asia and are also used to prepare a culinary starch. Kudzu is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine.

Distribution 

Kudzu is native to several Asian countries (India, Indochina, China, Korea, Japan, Thailand, Malaysia) and to Pacific Islands and Australia. It was introduced to South America and Southern United States, Africa, Central Asia, Ukraine and Caucasus in the late 18th century (USDA, 2009).

Kudzu thrives in warm, moist climates but is also tolerant of frost (FAO, 2009) and can be found at altitudes up to 2000 m (Praptiwi, 1999). It grows best on moist, well drained soils but can withstand drought if well established.

Environmental impact 

Within its native area, kudzu is mostly considered to be a beneficial species. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen and its deep taproots bring mineral nutrients from the subsoil to the topsoil, thus enhancing soil fertility. It is used as green manure, as well as anti-erosion cover on hillslopes. In the Central Amazon Basin, it has been reported to improve soil pore space in heavy clays (Chauvel et al., 1991).

In the Southern United States and Canada, due to near-perfect soil conditions, kudzu has become a noxious weed that is difficult to eradicate. Kudzu invasions have negative effects on air quality. Kudzu increases net N-mineralization by 1000% in the soil and nitric oxide emissions from soils by 100% thus leading to higher ozone concentrations in the air (Hickman et al., 2010).

Heavy grazing is an interesting way to control the spread of kudzu (Praptiwi, 1999).

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

While it has medicinal uses, no toxicity has been reported in livestock.

Ruminants 

Kudzu forage is highly palatable and is a good feedstuff for cattle and small ruminants (Hayashi et al., 2006; Gill et al., 1968). It can be grazed, cut for cut-and-carry feeding systems or mixed with grass to make good quality silage. Forage yield is about 5t/ha/year when grown on fertile soil (Praptiwi, 1999). Its overall chemical composition (tubers, stems and foliage) and digestion characteristics are comparable to other commonly fed forages (Corley et al., 1997). Moreover, nutrient disappearance rate in the rumen and intestinal availability of rumen undegradable nutrients are high and make it a valuable feedstuff for dairy cows (Kim et al., 1995).

In goats, it is reported to support 160 g body weight gain/animal/day (Woldeghebriel et al., 1992).

Pigs 

Kudzu forage can be a good substitute for alfalfa hay in swine (Massey et al., 1946 cited by Corley et al., 1997).

Poultry 

Kudzu forage can be a good substitute for alfalfa hay in poultry (Polk et al., 1945 cited by Corley et al., 1997). It was also reported to be a valuable green feed for poultry during dry periods (Bailey et al., 1931).

Rabbits 

Kudzu forage can be included in rabbit diets that contain energy sources such as cassava, sorghum or cottonseed meal (Silva et al., 1991; Bhatt et al., 2001).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 26.5 5.5 17.4 35.0 8
Crude protein % DM 15.1 5.1 8.3 24.3 14
Crude fibre % DM 33.1 5.2 22.6 40.6 10
NDF % DM 53.9 2.9 50.6 55.8 3
ADF % DM 30.7 9.4 17.3 39.7 5
Lignin % DM 7.8 1.4 6.1 9.0 4
Ether extract % DM 2.4 0.6 1.5 3.3 10
Ash % DM 9.3 2.6 5.6 13.6 11
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 12.3 6.3 6.2 26.4 11
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.4 0.6 1.9 4.1 12
Potassium g/kg DM 13.2 7.4 1.9 27.7 8
Sodium g/kg DM 0.3 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.3 0.6 2.6 4.2 8
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 4.0 1
Cystine % protein 1.1 1
Glycine % protein 4.5 1
Histidine % protein 2.7 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.9 1
Leucine % protein 6.7 1
Lysine % protein 4.4 1
Methionine % protein 1.8 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.2 1
Threonine % protein 4.2 1
Tryptophan % protein 2.4 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.3 1
Valine % protein 4.5 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 0.0 1
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 62.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 59.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 85.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bhatt et al., 2001; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Corley et al., 1997; Gaulier, 1968; Gill et al., 1968; Muir, 2002

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 13.3 1
Crude fibre % DM 40.3 1
Ether extract % DM 2.5 1
Ash % DM 9.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 18.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 55.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 51.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 65.6 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Van Wyk et al., 1951

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 17.2 2.5 14.5 19.6 3
Crude fibre % DM 29.6 21.5 37.6 2
NDF % DM 48.1 1
ADF % DM 38.2 1
Ether extract % DM 3.3 2.6 3.9 2
Ash % DM 8.1 0.3 7.8 8.3 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 10.9 7.0 14.8 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.1 1
Potassium g/kg DM 14.7 10.0 19.3 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.6 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.7 2.5 3.0 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 438 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 27 1
Copper mg/kg DM 10 1
Iron mg/kg DM 162 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 65.6 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 62.8 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Anon., 1934; CIRAD, 1991; Corley et al., 1997

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 8.6 1
NDF % DM 39.8 1
ADF % DM 53.3 1
Ash % DM 4.3 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.0 1
Potassium g/kg DM 3.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.0 1
Iron mg/kg DM 3600 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Corley et al., 1997

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:15

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Kudzu (Pueraria montana). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/258 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:31

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)