Sesame oil meal is rich in protein and energy but due to its low lysine content and high methionine and cystine contents it is used as a supplementary source of protein with other oil meals such as soybean meal (Yasothai, 2014). High differences in quality and nutritional value of sesame products can be observed (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). Phytates and oxalates are an issue for poultry feeding and can limit its use in practical diets. Amino acid digestibilities are high but processing at excessive temperature can decrease amino acid levels and availability (Yasothai, 2014).
Sesame oil meal
Studies on the use of sesame oil meal in broilers tend to conclude that sesame oil meal can be used at moderate levels, usually below 10% (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013; Daghir, 2008). Performance decreased at higher inclusion levels (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013). Some effects on broiler metabolism or intestine mucosa characteristics were observed (Yamauchi et al., 2006; Rama Rao et al., 2008). However, in some cases levels as high as 20% sesame oil meal allowed good performance (Jacob et al., 1996; Rama Rao et al., 2008). Feed intake is generally not affected by sesame oil meal in the diet, suggesting that palatability is not an issue. Adequate values for metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility should be used since local products can be significantly different from those presented in international feed tables (Kang et al., 1999; Yasothai, 2014). Phytase addition improved performance in some cases (Sterling et al., 2001) although this effect was not constant (Rahimian et al., 2013).
The general recommendation is to take great care on feed formulation when using sesame oil meal in broiler diets since subcarencies in amino acids (lysine) and minerals (Ca, P, etc.) could occur if inappropriate values are considered. In these conditions, the use of relatively low levels (5-8%) could be safe, while higher levels (10-15%) can be tested with high quality sesame oil meal, or with slower growing broilers.
In layers, laying performance and feed efficiency were affected by levels of sesame oil meal above 4% (Mamputu et al., 1995; Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). High levels (15-20%) of sesame oil meal led to significantly reduced laying rates, feed efficiency and weight gain (Jacob et al., 1996). Differences between performances obtained with sesame oil meals of different origins have been observed, possibly due to amino acid content or protein quality (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993).
In pullets, the use of sesame oil meal above 5% led to reduced growth and uniformity in the flock, and delayed initiation of lay (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992).
Sesame oil meal should be used with care in layers, and only at low levels. A particular attention should be paid to feed formulation, particularly amino acid content (lysine).
In growing japanese quails, up to 15% sesame oil meal was used without adverse effects on growth and carcass characteristics (Sina et al., 2014). In laying quails, the use of sesame oil meal decreased egg production and feed efficiency and is thus not recommended (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992).
The use of raw sesame seeds at 5 to 15% in diets for broilers reduced body weight gain and degraded feed efficiency whereas feed intake was less affected but tended to decrease (Olaiya et al., 2015; Ngele et al., 2011). Technological treatments could alleviate this negative effect to a certain extent. Toasting was the most efficient treatment, followed by soaking and boiling (Olaiya et al., 2015). However, even when toasted, sesame seeds led to performance below that obtained with control diets (Jiya et al., 2014; Ngele et al., 2011).
In layers, the optimal level of soaked sesame seeds was 3%, which allowed improved laying rate with unchanged feed intake. Above 6% sesame seeds, egg production and egg weight decreased, leading to a lower egg mass and feed efficiency.(Diarra et al., 2008).
The use of 1 to 2% sesame seeds improved laying rate in quails, without affecting body weight and feed intake. Fertility and hatchability were also improved (Al-Daraji et al., 2010).
In broilers the use of sesame hulls up to 10%, with adequate feed formulation, tended to slightly improve feed intake and growth performance, with unchanged feed efficiency (Nikolakakis et al., 2014; Mahmoud et al., 2015). In chicks, sesame hulls led to a decrease in growth performance, with a stronger effect at 12% inclusion than at 6 to 8% (Farran et al., 2000).
Egg production decreased above 14% sesame hulls in diets. At 7 to 14% sesame hulls, laying rate slightly decreased but egg weight increased, leading to a constant egg mass and feed efficiency. In all cases, sesame hulls decreased body weight gain in layers (Farran et al., 2000).