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African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea)

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

African locust bean, nitta tree

Related feed(s) 
Description 

Spreading tree of medium size with compound leaves and numerous leaflets. The pods grow in bunches, are 12-25 cm long, and contain a dry powdery yellow pulp embedded in dark-brown seeds. The tree is sometimes planted not only for animal feed but also for soil improvement as it extracts nutrients from deep layers of soil.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

All parts of the pods can be used for animal feed and are free from glucosides. Its usefulness is increased by the fact that the pods can be harvested during the dry season when feed is scarce.

Ruminants 

African locust bean trees are quite common in some regions of Africa, both in dry and humid areas. The role of African locust bean (Parkia filicoidea or Parkia biglobosa) as fodder for livestock has long been recognised in the literature (National Research Council, 2006; Sabiiti et al., 1992), even if this use seems less popular than for human nutrition and medicine (Belem et al., 1996; Sinare et al., 2015). The sugary pods are said to be much relished by cattle and other domestic livestock and to provide a valuable dry-season ration. The leaves are traditionally used, whole branches being lopped for fodder (National Research Council, 2006). The presence of saponins, lectins, tannins, trypsin inhibitors…, in African locust bean meal might however make rations prepared with them unpalatable to animals if they are not detoxified (Aregheore, 1998). Trees also provide shade for forage grasses and livestock, protect soil from heat and are important in soil nutrient cycling, therefore having a potential merit in silvopastoral systems. Unfortunately, there are very scarce quantitative data on its utilisation by ruminants (Sabiiti et al., 1992).

Digestibility and energy values

The potential degradability of African locust bean fodder in cattle, sheep and goats was shown to be among the lowest compared with other typical browse species of Nigeria (Larbi et al., 1997). In particular, Parkia biglobosa leaves had lower in-vitro DM digestibility than Gliricidia sepium which could be attributed to a higher NDF and probably tannin contents (Sabiiti et al., 1992). It was however suggested that seed, and leaf to a lesser extent, extracts have a potential for use as an anthelmintic agent in bovids (Soetan et al., 2011).

Dairy cows

We could not find any study reporting the influence of African locust bean inclusion in the diet of dairy cows.

Growing cattle

We could not find any study reporting the influence of African locust bean inclusion in the diet of growing cattle.

Sheep

Dietary inclusion of Parkia biglobosa (groundnut cake) up to 15% in a basal diet of Pennisetum pedicellatum can be safely used as a component of sheep’s diet (Wada et al., 2014). It did not reveal any negative effect on Yankasa rams regarding blood parameters. Unfortunately, performance (intake level, live weight gains) data were not available in this study.

Goat

A preliminary study showed that Parkia filicoidea leaves given as sole forage did not produce any live weight gain in West African dwarf female goats suggesting that this forage would require a supplementation (Adeloye, 1994).

The influence of supplementary inclusion of Parkia filicoidea hay in a cassava-peel diet (0, 25, 50, 75, 100%) compared with a control diet of Andropogon gayanus, maize and soybean meal for goats was therefore evaluated by a digestibility study. DM intake (g/head/day) was better with whole Parkia hay (153±34.5) than with the cassava peels (137±12.9). DM intakes were far better (> 200 g/head/day) on the supplemented diets compared with the control one. Acceptabilities were enhanced at 25/75 and 50/50 cassava peel/Parkia hay mixtures. Nutrient digestibilities were higher with the 50% replacement diet, except for crude fibre and total ash. The availability of the cassava peel and Parkia hay at little or no cost and the digestibility of the 50/50 combination as against that of the conventional (control) diet would make the 50/50 combination of the plant products an acceptable dry-season feed and a suitably cheap feed in subsistence goat-production (Adeloye et al., 1993).

 

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.6 1
Crude protein % DM 4.7 1
Crude fibre % DM 24.0 1
Ether extract % DM 1.2 1
Ash % DM 8.9 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 86.4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 52.4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Oyenuga, 1968

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 4.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 14.6 1
Ether extract % DM 2.3 1
Ash % DM 4.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 13.2 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 17.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 67.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Anon., 1922

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.0 1
Crude protein % DM 13.7 1
Crude fibre % DM 19.4 1
Ether extract % DM 7.3 1
Ash % DM 6.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.3 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 87.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 59.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Oyenuga, 1968

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 31.8 1
Crude fibre % DM 9.4 1
Ether extract % DM 17.4 1
Ash % DM 4.4 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 22.6 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 6.7 1
Cystine % protein 1.9 1
Glycine % protein 4.5 1
Histidine % protein 3.0 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.6 1
Leucine % protein 6.9 1
Lysine % protein 6.7 1
Methionine % protein 0.6 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 1
Threonine % protein 3.3 1
Tryptophan % protein 0.9 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.6 1
Valine % protein 4.2 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 91.0 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 75.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Anon., 1922; Fetuga, 1974

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:34

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/268 Last updated on July 25, 2017, 12:04

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