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White lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Lupin, white lupin, Egyptian lupin [English]; lupin blanc [French]; weisse lupine [German]; lupino bianco [Italian]; altramuz blanco, chocho, chorcho,entremozo, lupino blanco [Spanish]; tremoceiro, tremoceiro branco, tremoceiro da Beira, tremoço [Portuguese]; الترمس الأبيض [Arabic]; Люпин белый [Russian]; 白羽扇豆 [Chinese]

Description 

White lupine is a multipurpose annual legume. It is grown in many countries as a source of fodder for livestock and for food industry. White lupin (Lupinus albus) is one of the 200 species belonging to the genus Lupinus and one of the 4 species cultivated on a larger scale as agricultural crops (Jansen, 2006). White lupins, yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus) and blue (narrow leaf) lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) are the main lupin crops in the world. White and yellow lupin seeds provide higher protein than blue lupin seeds which may be of importance when lupins are used to feed animals (Soya UK, 2016).

Morphology

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is an erect, bushy, annual legume that can reach 1.2 m high. White lupin has an indeterminate growing habit. It is many branched and deeply taprooted. The root can grow 70 cm deep into the soil layers. The stems are coarse, branched, slightly silky. The leaves are alternate, medium sized and digitally compound. They bear 5-9 leaflets. The leaflets are obovate (cuneate at the base and mucronate at the apex), 2-6 cm long x 0.5-2 cm broad, smooth on the upper face, hairy on the lower. The inflorescence is a terminal, 3-30 cm long, false raceme that bears many flowers. The flowers are pedicellated, typically papillonaceous, white to violet in colour. The corolla is 15-18 mm x 8-12 mm, the upper lip entire and the lower slightly 3-toothed. The pods are 3-6 seeded, narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, (6-) 9-15 cm long × 1-2 cm wide, yellow in colour.The seeds are large, flat, rectangular or square-shaped with rounded corners, laterally compressed and about 7-16 mm long × 6-12 mm wide × 2-5.5 mm high.The seeds are smooth and white with a salmon/pink tint or with dark brown speckles (Clark, 2014; El Bassam, 2010; Jansen, 2006). White lupin seeds, unlike seeds from other lupin species, do not shatter at maturity. White lupin seeds contain variable levels (0.01 to 4%) of bitter quinolizidine alkaloids and are thus classified into sweet or bitter seeds (Clark, 2014).

Uses

White lupin provides edible seeds, green manure and fodder (Jansen, 2006). The seeds of earlier varieties of white lupin could be cooked and eaten as a pulse after being soaked in order to remove toxic alkaloids. They could also be pickled and used for snacks. White lupin seeds are mainly consumed by low-income classes or during times of scarcity (Jansen, 2006). Seeds of modern varieties have low alkaloid content (sweet lupin have less than 0.02% alkaloid) and can thus be used without previous treatment in high-value food specialties, mostly in bakery industry, to enrich pastas, cake mixtures, cereals, and other baked goods (Clark, 2014). Due to their good nutrient content (see nutritional attributes) white lupin seeds may also be used to feed livestock and aquaculture species. The plant may also be grazed during late winter and early spring or cut for forage or silage. As a legume, white lupin plant is used for green manuring (in Southern Europe, it is traditionnally used in vineyards and olive plantations), and for soil improvement (Jansen, 2006; Duke, 1981). White lupin is also a good honey plant and an attractive annual ornamental (Jansen, 2006). It was recently reported to have lowering effect on blood cholesterol in humans (Fontanari et al., 2012).

Distribution 

Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are broadly distributed throughout the world. There are two geographically separate groups: new World species and Old Word species among which 4 are cultivated, one from the New World and the 3 others from the Old World. All of them are smooth-seeded. Lupins (Lupinus spp.) occupy almost all kinds of habitats from sea level to altitudes up to 4000 m (Wolko et al., 2010).

White lupin would have originated from south-eastern Europe and western Asia. It was already cultivated in Greece, Italy and Egypt and Cyprus 2000 years BCE (TerresUnivia, 2016; Clark, 2014). Ancient Egypt was believed to be the place where white lupin was first cultivated. However, Greece would be more likely the place of domestication as larger biodiversity and higher number of wild-growing forms exist in this country (Clark, 2014). Though an early cultivated species, plant breeding programs for the selection of sweet cultivars of white lupins seem to have started not earlier than 1930. First varieties of white lupin were used for ruminants feeding or for humans with prior soaking and cooking to remove bitterness (due to alkaloids) from the seeds (TerresUnivia, 2016).

White lupin is a winter growing legume that can be found in the wild on disturbed and poor soils where competition from other species is reduced (Clark, 2014). In cultivation it can be suitable in places too poor for faba bean cultivation (Jansen, 2006). It is mainly cultivated in climate areas corresponding to northern europe, Russia, arid Australian plains and andean Highlands (Chile). Spring types can be grown in the Northern Midwestern and in Northeastern United States of America (Clark, 2014). It is occasionnally grown in Africa, in Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Mauritius (Jansen, 2006).

White lupin can be grown from sea level up to an altitude of 740 m (Ecocrop, 2017). In Ethiopia, it is cultivated between 1500 and 3000 m altitude (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does better in places where average monthly temperatures during the growing season range from 18°C to 24°C and where rainfall is about 400-1000 mm during the same period. White lupin is tolerant of frost but temperatures of -6°C to -8°C during germination and -3° to -5°C at flowering stage are deleterious to the crop. Moisture deficiency is also harmful during the reproductive period (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does well on moderately fertile, well-drained, light or medium textured and mildly acidic or mildly calcareous soils with pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 (-7.5) (Clark, 2014; Jansen, 2006). On the contrary, white lupin does not well on heavy clay, waterlogged and alkaline soils (Clark, 2014). Some cultivars have however more tolerance of heavy soils and do better on saline soils than other crops (Clark, 2014). Under conditions where P is limiting, lupins form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free P from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Statistics about lupin production are nesting all types of lupins. Worldwide lupin (Lupinus spp.) production in 2014 was about 1 million tons. Main lupin producer (625 000 tons) is Australia which is known to produce blue lupin. Other important producers are Poland, Russia, Germany, Belarus, and Ukraine, totalizing 290 000 tons of which most lupins are yellow lupin (TerresUnivia, 2016). The remaining production is due to France and Mediterranean countries like Italia, Spain, Greece and Egypt. This production is about 25 000 tons and is likely to be mainly white lupin (FAO, 2017).

Forage management 

White lupin seeds intended for sowing should be tested for anthracnose infection and inoculated with adequate rhizobium (Rhizobium lupini) if the crop has not been cultivated in the stand previously. Sowing rates seems to be variable, depending on climatic conditions and soils. Lupin type (winter or spring) should also be taken into account. In France, winter lupin recommended sowing rates are between 20 and 30 seeds/m² while in UK, higher rate of 50 seeds/m² are advised (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014). The seeds should be drilled 30-40 mm deep (no deeper than 50 mm) in a good tilth and moist seedbed in non compacting soil (Pgro, 2014). In Ethiopia, farmers usually broadcast the seeds of white lupin at 34-40 seeds/m² in July or September (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010). 

Though it is mainly sown as a sole crop, white lupin can be grown in association with other crops (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014; Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010). In Europe, in organic systems, white lupin could be cultivated in mixture with oats, barley and triticale which helped controlling weeds and could yield 2.3 tons grains/ha (Milleville, 2014). In Ethiopia, white lupin could be cultivated in mixed stands with niger (Guyzotia abyssinica), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or maize (Zea mays) (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010).

White lupin is a slow growing legume which needs 11 months to become mature and to be harvested. Winter white lupin should be sown as soon as possible at the end of summer to promote sufficient growth and gain enough cold-resistance before winter (Arvalis, 2014).

Spring lupins should be sown on warm, moist seedbed for better development at higher seed rates (45-60 seeds/m²) in France with smaller distance between rows than for winter types) (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014).

White lupins are higly susceptible to anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporoides or C. acutatum), a common seed-borne disease in countries with humid summers. Anthracnose spreads rapidly by wind, rain, soil-borne spores, clothing and equipment. Anthracnose can cause almost total crop loss when infection is severe and left untreated. However anthracnose is easy to detect and can be effectively controlled with fungicide applications (Pgro, 2014).

In Europe, lupin harvest is done in the first half of September for winter lupins and in the second half of September for spring lupins (Métivier, 2013).

Environmental impact 

N-fixing legume and sustainable P management

Lupins are N-fixing legumes that are reported to fix 300-400 kg N /ha in Europe and Australia (Jansen, 2006). Lupins can provide benefit to the following crop (Pgro, 2014). In organic crops, lupins were demonstrated to result in a 0.5 t/ha response in rye grown following yellow lupins compared to following spring beans (Pgro, 2014).

Lupins are valuable legumes for sustainable P management : in soils depleted in available P, lupin plants form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free it from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Soil improver and phytoremediation

Thanks to their deep taproot lupin plants improve soil texture and drainage. White lupins can be used after a summer metal-accumulating plant used for phytoremediation. Lupins may extend the phytoremediation period and increase bioavailability of metals in polluted soil under recovery (Fumagalli et al., 2014).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

All three species have a similar chemical composition. The seeds make a valuable protein-rich concentrate that can be used with confidence in balanced mixtures for all stock. Seeds from the blue variety are generally less palatable than those from the yellow variety.

Potential constraints 

Alkaloids

The bitter earlier varieties of lupins (Lupinus spp.) contained a toxic alkaloid and were not recommended for animal feeding unless the alkaloid was removed by soaking in water. The newly obtained sweet (alkaloid-free) varieties, which can be distinguished by taste and smaller growth, are palatable to stock.

Oligosaccharides

Lupin seeds (Lupinus spp.) are known to contain significant levels  (from 7 to 20%) of oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. 

White lupine seeds contain from 7 to 14% α-galactosides, of which the most important was stachyose (2.8%), followed by saccharose (1.8%) raffinose (0.4%), and verbascose (0.3%) (Zdunczyk et al., 1996; Saini, 1989). Oligosaccharide level may depend on variety but also on conditions of cultivation and harvest (Pisarikova et al., 2009).

Ruminants 

Because of their thick juicy stems lupin plants are not suitable for haymaking, but they can be used as fresh forage or ensiled with maize or other cereals.
For sheep and cattle lupin seeds can be the sole concentrated protein feed.

Pigs 
Up to 20% ground seeds can be included in pig diets. Though considered a good energy source, white lupin contain high amounts of starch, soluble and non soluble polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides: these substances may have deleterious effects on digestible energy and on animal health as they are readily fermented in the large intestine (Barneveld et al., 1999). Actually, lupin inclusion in pigs diet does not change DE but overestimates Net Energy (NE) value because there is a decrease of digestibility at the end of the intestine. It has been recommended to measure NE value of lupin in growing pigs in order to optimize ration efficiency (Barenveld et al., 1999). In sows, the use of lupins is easier as sows are able to ferment lupin seeds and thus get more energy from them; in sows lupin seed hulls also have much higher energy than in growing pigs (Noblet, 1997). However, it was recommended to include lupin at level below 20% of the diet since they may result in high levels of gas production and could compromise sows'health (Barneveld, 1999).
 
Poultry 
Up to 20% ground seeds can be included in poultry diets.
Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 20.2 21.6 11.1 92.0 13
Crude protein % DM 21.5 2.9 18.3 27.9 13
Crude fibre % DM 23.5 3.4 17.1 28.1 12
NDF % DM 31.1 1
ADF % DM 25.6 1
Lignin % DM 4.1 1
Ether extract % DM 3.1 2.6 3.6 2
Ash % DM 8.0 2.7 6.3 13.9 12
Total sugars % DM 16.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 12.7 12.6 12.8 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6 2.5 2.7 2
Potassium g/kg DM 26.1 1
Sodium g/kg DM 3.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 71.7 2.3 71.7 82.0 10 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 68.6 2.2 68.6 79.0 10 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 84.3 2.0 81.6 86.6 10

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bhannasiri, 1970; Haugen et al., 1992; Holm, 1971; Mbugua et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 5.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 55.3 1
NDF % DM 82.4 1
ADF % DM 63.8 1
Lignin % DM 12.6 1
Ash % DM 4.1 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 123 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 10 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 46.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 5.8 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 3.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.2 1.2 87.7 92.4 55
Crude protein % DM 33.8 1.9 29.8 37.7 71
Crude fibre % DM 16.1 1.6 13.1 20.0 54
NDF % DM 25.6 2.6 20.3 30.6 18
ADF % DM 20.9 2.0 17.9 24.5 17
Lignin % DM 1.5 0.8 0.3 3.5 14
Ether extract % DM 6.1 0.6 4.7 7.2 59
Ash % DM 3.5 0.4 2.9 4.3 57
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 4.7 5.3 0.2 14.9 31
Total sugars % DM 5.8 1.5 4.5 8.8 8
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.3 0.4 19.5 20.8 18 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.7 0.7 2.2 4.2 10
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.5 0.6 2.9 4.7 11
Potassium g/kg DM 9.3 0.8 8.4 9.8 3
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 1.9 2.0 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 43 10 35 57 5
Iron mg/kg DM 57 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.1 3.7 12
Arginine % protein 11.0 0.7 9.5 12.3 19
Aspartic acid % protein 9.9 0.5 9.2 11.1 12
Cystine % protein 1.5 0.2 1.2 1.8 19
Glutamic acid % protein 22.8 1.4 20.8 25.0 12
Glycine % protein 4.1 0.1 3.9 4.4 11
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.1 2.4 2.9 17
Isoleucine % protein 4.2 0.2 3.9 4.4 17
Leucine % protein 6.9 0.4 6.2 7.8 18
Lysine % protein 4.7 0.2 4.5 5.1 27
Methionine % protein 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.8 18
Phenylalanine % protein 4.0 0.5 3.1 5.4 14
Proline % protein 4.3 0.3 3.7 4.6 11
Serine % protein 5.1 0.2 4.8 5.4 12
Threonine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.1 3.6 22
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.1 0.8 1.0 16
Tyrosine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.3 4.0 14
Valine % protein 3.9 0.2 3.4 4.3 18
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 2.1 1.5 0.0 3.6 10
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.9 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 89.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 18.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 79.9 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 77 16 50 93 6
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 64.8 5.8 64.8 83.2 3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.2 1.4 13.2 17.2 3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 83.1 79.7 86.4 2
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 87.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998; AFZ, 2011; Ashes et al., 1978; Barnett et al., 1981; Batterham et al., 1981; Batterham et al., 1984; Batterham, 1979; Buraczewska et al., 1993; Cavaliere et al., 1989; Cherrière et al., 2003; CIRAD, 1991; Eggum et al., 1993; Faurie et al., 1992; Fekete et al., 1986; Freer et al., 1984; Gdala et al., 1996; Gdala et al., 1997; King, 1981; Maillard et al., 1990; Mancuso, 1996; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Smolders et al., 1990; Tamminga et al., 1990; Taverner et al., 1983; Valentine et al., 1987; Valentine et al., 1988

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.1 1.7 85.5 91.5 9
Crude protein % DM 43.0 3.5 34.4 48.4 10
Crude fibre % DM 16.3 2.2 13.5 20.2 7
NDF % DM 24.4 2.3 21.6 28.6 7
ADF % DM 20.1 2.2 18.4 24.6 7
Lignin % DM 2.1 1.2 1.4 4.9 8
Ether extract % DM 5.4 0.4 4.6 6.3 10
Ash % DM 5.0 0.9 3.6 6.5 7
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 6.9 1
Total sugars % DM 5.1 4.1 6.0 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.9 0.4 19.7 20.9 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.9 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 9.2 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.2 3.2 3.2 2
Arginine % protein 10.8 0.8 9.9 11.5 3
Aspartic acid % protein 10.0 9.8 10.1 2
Cystine % protein 2.0 0.2 1.5 2.2 7
Glutamic acid % protein 24.6 24.6 24.6 2
Glycine % protein 4.0 0.3 3.8 4.3 3
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.1 2.5 2.8 4
Isoleucine % protein 3.8 0.1 3.7 3.9 4
Leucine % protein 7.7 0.1 7.5 7.8 4
Lysine % protein 5.0 0.1 4.8 5.2 7
Methionine % protein 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.8 7
Phenylalanine % protein 3.7 0.5 3.3 4.4 4
Proline % protein 3.9 3.9 4.0 2
Serine % protein 4.8 4.7 4.8 2
Threonine % protein 3.2 0.0 3.1 3.2 7
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.1 0.8 1.0 7
Tyrosine % protein 2.7 0.2 2.5 3.0 4
Valine % protein 3.6 0.1 3.5 3.8 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.8 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 89.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 64.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.3 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.5 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 10.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998; AFZ, 2011; Buraczewska et al., 1993; Cavaliere et al., 1989; Gdala et al., 1996; Gdala et al., 1997; Guillaume, 1978; Van Etten et al., 1961

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 6.7 1
Crude fibre % DM 49.9 1
NDF % DM 77.6 1
ADF % DM 58.3 1
Lignin % DM 9.9 1
Ash % DM 4.7 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 6.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.7 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 104 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 34 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 49.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.6 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 11.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 12.3 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 88.4 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.1 1
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 88.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Kirsch et al., 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.8 1.0 87.1 89.5 5
Crude protein % DM 37.5 4.7 33.6 45.0 5
Crude fibre % DM 13.9 2.1 11.1 16.2 5
Ether extract % DM 5.0 1
Ash % DM 4.8 1
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 10.6 3.4 6.3 13.4 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.7 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.6 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 68.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 90.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; DLG, 1961

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/279 Last updated on January 25, 2017, 18:17