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Feedipedia

White lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Lupin, white lupin, Egyptian lupin [English]; lupin blanc [French]; weisse lupine [German]; lupino bianco [Italian]; altramuz blanco, chocho, chorcho,entremozo, lupino blanco [Spanish]; tremoceiro, tremoceiro branco, tremoceiro da Beira, tremoço [Portuguese]; الترمس الأبيض [Arabic]; Люпин белый [Russian]; 白羽扇豆 [Chinese]

Description 

White lupine is a multipurpose annual legume. It is grown in many countries as a source of fodder for livestock and for food industry. White lupin (Lupinus albus) is one of the 200 species belonging to the genus Lupinus and one of the 4 species cultivated on a larger scale as agricultural crops (Jansen, 2006). White lupins, yellow lupins (Lupinus luteus) and blue (narrow leaf) lupins (Lupinus angustifolius) are the main lupin crops in the world. White and yellow lupin seeds provide higher protein than blue lupin seeds which may be of importance when lupins are used to feed animals (Soya UK, 2016).

Morphology

White lupin (Lupinus albus) is an erect, bushy, annual legume that can reach 1.2 m high. White lupin has an indeterminate growing habit. It is many branched and deeply taprooted. The root can grow 70 cm deep into the soil layers. The stems are coarse, branched, slightly silky. The leaves are alternate, medium sized and digitally compound. They bear 5-9 leaflets. The leaflets are obovate (cuneate at the base and mucronate at the apex), 2-6 cm long x 0.5-2 cm broad, smooth on the upper face, hairy on the lower. The inflorescence is a terminal, 3-30 cm long, false raceme that bears many flowers. The flowers are pedicellated, typically papillonaceous, white to violet in colour. The corolla is 15-18 mm x 8-12 mm, the upper lip entire and the lower slightly 3-toothed. The pods are 3-6 seeded, narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, (6-) 9-15 cm long × 1-2 cm wide, yellow in colour.The seeds are large, flat, rectangular or square-shaped with rounded corners, laterally compressed and about 7-16 mm long × 6-12 mm wide × 2-5.5 mm high.The seeds are smooth and white with a salmon/pink tint or with dark brown speckles (Clark, 2014; El Bassam, 2010; Jansen, 2006). White lupin seeds, unlike seeds from other lupin species, do not shatter at maturity. White lupin seeds contain variable levels (0.01 to 4%) of bitter quinolizidine alkaloids and are thus classified into sweet or bitter seeds (Clark, 2014).

Uses

White lupin provides edible seeds, green manure and fodder (Jansen, 2006). The seeds of earlier varieties of white lupin could be cooked and eaten as a pulse after being soaked in order to remove toxic alkaloids. They could also be pickled and used for snacks. White lupin seeds are mainly consumed by low-income classes or during times of scarcity (Jansen, 2006). Seeds of modern varieties have low alkaloid content (sweet lupin have less than 0.02% alkaloid) and can thus be used without previous treatment in high-value food specialties, mostly in bakery industry, to enrich pastas, cake mixtures, cereals, and other baked goods (Clark, 2014). Due to their good nutrient content (see nutritional attributes) white lupin seeds may also be used to feed livestock and aquaculture species. The plant may also be grazed during late winter and early spring or cut for forage or silage. As a legume, white lupin plant is used for green manuring (in Southern Europe, it is traditionnally used in vineyards and olive plantations), and for soil improvement (Jansen, 2006; Duke, 1981). White lupin is also a good honey plant and an attractive annual ornamental (Jansen, 2006). It was recently reported to have lowering effect on blood cholesterol in humans (Fontanari et al., 2012).

Distribution 

Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are broadly distributed throughout the world. There are two geographically separate groups: new World species and Old Word species among which 4 are cultivated, one from the New World and the 3 others from the Old World. All of them are smooth-seeded. Lupins (Lupinus spp.) occupy almost all kinds of habitats from sea level to altitudes up to 4000 m (Wolko et al., 2010).

White lupin would have originated from south-eastern Europe and western Asia. It was already cultivated in Greece, Italy and Egypt and Cyprus 2000 years BCE (TerresUnivia, 2016; Clark, 2014). Ancient Egypt was believed to be the place where white lupin was first cultivated. However, Greece would be more likely the place of domestication as larger biodiversity and higher number of wild-growing forms exist in this country (Clark, 2014). Though an early cultivated species, plant breeding programs for the selection of sweet cultivars of white lupins seem to have started not earlier than 1930. First varieties of white lupin were used for ruminants feeding or for humans with prior soaking and cooking to remove bitterness (due to alkaloids) from the seeds (TerresUnivia, 2016).

White lupin is a winter growing legume that can be found in the wild on disturbed and poor soils where competition from other species is reduced (Clark, 2014). In cultivation it can be suitable in places too poor for faba bean cultivation (Jansen, 2006). It is mainly cultivated in climate areas corresponding to northern europe, Russia, arid Australian plains and andean Highlands (Chile). Spring types can be grown in the Northern Midwestern and in Northeastern United States of America (Clark, 2014). It is occasionnally grown in Africa, in Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Mauritius (Jansen, 2006).

White lupin can be grown from sea level up to an altitude of 740 m (Ecocrop, 2017). In Ethiopia, it is cultivated between 1500 and 3000 m altitude (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does better in places where average monthly temperatures during the growing season range from 18°C to 24°C and where rainfall is about 400-1000 mm during the same period. White lupin is tolerant of frost but temperatures of -6°C to -8°C during germination and -3° to -5°C at flowering stage are deleterious to the crop. Moisture deficiency is also harmful during the reproductive period (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does well on moderately fertile, well-drained, light or medium textured and mildly acidic or mildly calcareous soils with pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 (-7.5) (Clark, 2014; Jansen, 2006). On the contrary, white lupin does not well on heavy clay, waterlogged and alkaline soils (Clark, 2014). Some cultivars have however more tolerance of heavy soils and do better on saline soils than other crops (Clark, 2014). Under conditions where P is limiting, lupins form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free P from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Statistics about lupin production are nesting all types of lupins. Worldwide lupin (Lupinus spp.) production in 2014 was about 1 million tons. Main lupin producer (625 000 tons) is Australia which is known to produce mainly blue lupin. However, in 2000, Australia was reported to produce 100 000 tons white lupins (Petterson et al., 2000). Other important lupin producers are Poland, Russia, Germany, Belarus, and Ukraine, totalizing 290 000 tons of which most lupins are yellow lupins (TerresUnivia, 2016). The remaining production is due to France and Mediterranean countries like Italia, Spain, Greece and Egypt. This production is about 25 000 tons and is likely to be mainly white lupin (FAO, 2017).

Forage management 

White lupin seeds intended for sowing should be tested for anthracnose infection and inoculated with adequate rhizobium (Rhizobium lupini) if the crop has not been cultivated in the stand previously. Sowing rates seems to be variable, depending on climatic conditions and soils. Lupin type (winter or spring) should also be taken into account. In France, winter lupin recommended sowing rates are between 20 and 30 seeds/m² while in UK, higher rate of 50 seeds/m² are advised (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014). The seeds should be drilled 30-40 mm deep (no deeper than 50 mm) in a good tilth and moist seedbed in non compacting soil (Pgro, 2014). In Ethiopia, farmers usually broadcast the seeds of white lupin at 34-40 seeds/m² in July or September (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010). 

Though it is mainly sown as a sole crop, white lupin can be grown in association with other crops (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014; Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010). In Europe, in organic systems, white lupin could be cultivated in mixture with oats, barley and triticale which helped controlling weeds and could yield 2.3 tons grains/ha (Milleville, 2014). In Ethiopia, white lupin could be cultivated in mixed stands with niger (Guyzotia abyssinica), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or maize (Zea mays) (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010).

White lupin is a slow growing legume which needs 11 months to become mature and to be harvested. Winter white lupin should be sown as soon as possible at the end of summer to promote sufficient growth and gain enough cold-resistance before winter (Arvalis, 2014).

Spring lupins should be sown on warm, moist seedbed for better development at higher seed rates (45-60 seeds/m²) in France with smaller distance between rows than for winter types) (Arvalis, 2014; Pgro, 2014).

White lupins are higly susceptible to anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporoides or C. acutatum), a common seed-borne disease in countries with humid summers. Anthracnose spreads rapidly by wind, rain, soil-borne spores, clothing and equipment. Anthracnose can cause almost total crop loss when infection is severe and left untreated. However anthracnose is easy to detect and can be effectively controlled with fungicide applications (Pgro, 2014).

In Europe, lupin harvest is done in the first half of September for winter lupins and in the second half of September for spring lupins (Métivier, 2013).

Environmental impact 

N-fixing legume and sustainable P management

Lupins are N-fixing legumes that are reported to fix 300-400 kg N /ha in Europe and Australia (Jansen, 2006). Lupins can provide benefit to the following crop (Pgro, 2014). In organic crops, lupins were demonstrated to result in a 0.5 t/ha response in rye grown following yellow lupins compared to following spring beans (Pgro, 2014).

Lupins are valuable legumes for sustainable P management : in soils depleted in available P, lupin plants form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free it from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Soil improver and phytoremediation

Thanks to their deep taproot lupin plants improve soil texture and drainage. White lupins can be used after a summer metal-accumulating plant used for phytoremediation. Lupins may extend the phytoremediation period and increase bioavailability of metals in polluted soil under recovery (Fumagalli et al., 2014).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

All three species have a similar chemical composition. The seeds make a valuable protein-rich concentrate that can be used with confidence in balanced mixtures for all stock. Seeds from the blue variety are generally less palatable than those from the yellow variety.

Potential constraints 

Alkaloids

The bitter earlier varieties of lupins (Lupinus spp.) contained a toxic alkaloid and were not recommended for animal feeding unless the alkaloid was removed by soaking in water. The newly obtained sweet (alkaloid-free) varieties, which can be distinguished by taste and smaller growth, are palatable to stock.

Oligosaccharides

Lupin seeds (Lupinus spp.) are known to contain significant levels  (from 7 to 20%) of oligosaccharides of the raffinose family. 

White lupine seeds contain from 7 to 14% α-galactosides, of which the most important was stachyose (2.8%), followed by saccharose (1.8%) raffinose (0.4%), and verbascose (0.3%) (Zdunczyk et al., 1996; Saini, 1989). Oligosaccharide level may depend on variety but also on conditions of cultivation and harvest (Pisarikova et al., 2009).

Ruminants 

Because of their thick juicy stems lupin plants are not suitable for haymaking, but they can be used as fresh forage or ensiled with maize or other cereals.
For sheep and cattle lupin seeds can be the sole concentrated protein feed.

Pigs 
In spite of good nutritive value in pigs, white lupin (Lupinus albus) is generally not included in pigs diet above 15-20% dietary level as it has been reported to depress feed intake and growth at higher level (Barneveld et al., 1999; Edwards et al.,1998; Donovan et al., 1993; Kelly et al., 1990).
 
Though considered a good energy source, white lupin contain high amounts of starch, soluble and non soluble polysaccharides (NSP) and oligosaccharides: these substances may have deleterious effects on digestible energy and on animal health as they are readily fermented in the large intestine (Barneveld et al., 1999). 
 
Actually, lupin inclusion in pigs diet does not change DE but overestimates Net Energy (NE) value because there is a decrease of digestibility at the end of the intestine. It has been recommended to measure NE value of lupin in growing pigs in order to optimize ration efficiency (Barneveld et al., 1999). In sows, the use of lupins is easier as sows are able to ferment lupin seeds and thus get more energy from them; in sows lupin seed hulls also have much higher energy than in growing pigs (Noblet, 1997). However, it was recommended to include lupin at level below 20% of the diet since they may result in high levels of gas production and could compromise sows'health (Barneveld, 1999).
 
Poultry 
Up to 20% ground seeds can be included in poultry diets (Göhl, 1982).

Broilers

Up to 25% white lupin could be included in broilers diet in Europe (Brenes et al., 1990; Castanon et al., 1990; Bekric et al., 1990). If supplementary methionine was provided, inclusion rate could reach 40% (Watkins et al., 1988; Buraczewska et al., 1993).
 

Laying hens

In laying hens up to 30% white lupin seeds could be included in combination with mathionine (Prinsloo et al., 1992).

Ducks

Peking ducklings could receive 40% white lupin seed meal without deleterious effect on their growth, feed conversion or carcass quality (Petterson et al., 2000).
 
Rabbits 

White lupin seeds

As for the whole plant, the Lupinus albus seeds (beans) are recommended for rabbit feeding since a long time (Benoit et al., 1948). The common recommended level of incorporation in balanced diets for growing rabbits varies from 10 to 20% according to the experiments for growing rabbits (Battaglini et al., 1991; Mesini, 1997; Sarhan, 1999; Seroux, 1984; Volek et al., 2008; Volek et al., 2009). But it should be noticed that higher incorporation levels such as 40% or 50% were experimentally used without alteration of growth performance (Fekete et al., 1986; Kelly et al., 1990). White lupin seeds could also be used successfully in the diet of lactating rabbit does. Compared to a soybean-sunflower meal control diet, a diet with 25% white lupin seeds increases the 1-31 d. milk production of the rabbit does by 11%, most probably in relation with the higher lipids content of the lupin diet: 4.1% vs. 2.3% (Volek et al., 2014). Despite the variations of seed composition of the different cultivated varieties of Lupinus albus, their is no intrinsic great difference in nutritive value between cultivars, since no difference between varieties in rabbit growth performance was observed in a comparison of 6 white lupin seeds cultivars made in France (Lebas, 1986).

For other species such as poultry and particularly pigs, the presence of alkaloid and some other antinutritional factors in lupin seeds makes a pre-treatment (washing, heating...) or the addition of enzymes very useful for the optimization of their utilisation in animal feeding (Cheeke et al., 1989; Brenes et al., 1993). On the contrary, rabbit is poorly sensitive to lupin's alkaloids (Cheeke et al., 1989), and seeds washing or the addition of an enzymes cocktail failed to improve the white lupin nutritive value for growing rabbits (Falcao-e-Cunha et al., 2008). Nevertheless extrusion of imported Australian white lupin seeds (16% of the diet) improved rabbit's growth rate by 10% above the control diet without lupin in an Italian study (Battaglini et al., 1991).

In practical conditions, white lupin seeds could be considered as an interesting source of proteins (~35% DM) with a high level of digestible energy: 13.5 to 16.0 MJ/kg DM (Fekete et al., 1986; Lebas, 1986; Maertens et al., 2002). The high level of energy is the consequence of the relatively low level of fibre, NDF 17.5% of DM, and more, of the high content of lipids, 9-10% DM, despite the very low starch content (Petterson, 2000). These lipids are relatively rich in alpha-linolenic acid C18:3, that represents 9-10% of total fatty acids (Chiofalo et al., 2012). This is able to improve the quality of rabbit meat for human consumption through a better omega 6 to omega 3 ratio (Volek et al., 2011), and can also explain partly the improvement of the sanitary situation of rabbits during production observed with white lupin seeds when compared to soybean meal (Colin et al., 2012; Uhlířová et al., 2016). However, the proteins of white lupin seed are not very rich in lysine for proteins of a legume seed (~ 4.9g /16 g N), just covering the growing rabbit needs. But as for other leguminous seeds, the proteins of white lupin seeds are strongly deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids, covering only 65% of rabbit needs (Lebas, 2013), a situation which makes necessary the complementation of this source of proteins with other raw materials such as cereals or cereal byproducts (wheat bran...), or with synthetic methionine.

Whole plant Forage

Lupinus albus whole plant is a forage know in Europe to be useful in rabbit feeding since a long time. Used as only feed, its nutritive value was estimated similar to that of green alfalfa (Brüggemann, 1939 cited by Voris et al., 1940). Effectively dried lupin forage used as the main source of fibre in a rabbit diet induced growth rate and feed efficiency similarly or even better than alfalfa meal used in the same conditions (Harries et al., 1999).

Green lupin used as forage distributed ad libitum may replace 20% of a concentrate complete feed without alteration of growth rate of fattening rabbits But if the daily allowance of concentrate represents only 60% of the spontaneous intake of the ad libitum control, the spontaneous intake of the additional green lupin forage is not sufficient to permit the same growth rate (El-Gendy, 1999). 

White lupin hulls

Lupin seed external coat, generally named hulls after removal, represents 22% of the whole grain (Petterson, 2000). In a study were in the diet 10% wheat bran were replaced by 5% white lupin hulls + 5% barley, rabbits showed normal figures for growth rate (52.4 g/d on average), feed intake (155.1 g/d on average) and feed conversion ratio (2.97 on average). For the 2 diets, digestibility coefficients were similar for energy, crude proteins or NDF. As a consequence white lupin hulls could be considered as a suitable source of fibre for rabbits with 86.9% NDF and 7.2% ADL, but with a very low content of proteins i.e about 4.5%, as for cereal straw (Volek et al., 2013).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 20.2 21.6 11.1 92.0 13
Crude protein % DM 21.5 2.9 18.3 27.9 13
Crude fibre % DM 23.5 3.4 17.1 28.1 12
NDF % DM 31.1 1
ADF % DM 25.6 1
Lignin % DM 4.1 1
Ether extract % DM 3.1 2.6 3.6 2
Ash % DM 8.0 2.7 6.3 13.9 12
Total sugars % DM 16.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 12.7 12.6 12.8 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6 2.5 2.7 2
Potassium g/kg DM 26.1 1
Sodium g/kg DM 3.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 71.7 2.3 71.7 82.0 10 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 68.6 2.2 68.6 79.0 10 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 84.3 2.0 81.6 86.6 10

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bhannasiri, 1970; Haugen et al., 1992; Holm, 1971; Mbugua et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 5.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 55.3 1
NDF % DM 82.4 1
ADF % DM 63.8 1
Lignin % DM 12.6 1
Ash % DM 4.1 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 123 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 10 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 46.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 5.8 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 3.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.2 1.2 87.7 92.4 55
Crude protein % DM 33.8 1.9 29.8 37.7 71
Crude fibre % DM 16.1 1.6 13.1 20.0 54
NDF % DM 25.6 2.6 20.3 30.6 18
ADF % DM 20.9 2.0 17.9 24.5 17
Lignin % DM 1.5 0.8 0.3 3.5 14
Ether extract % DM 6.1 0.6 4.7 7.2 59
Ash % DM 3.5 0.4 2.9 4.3 57
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 4.7 5.3 0.2 14.9 31
Total sugars % DM 5.8 1.5 4.5 8.8 8
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.3 0.4 19.5 20.8 18 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.7 0.7 2.2 4.2 10
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.5 0.6 2.9 4.7 11
Potassium g/kg DM 9.3 0.8 8.4 9.8 3
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 1.9 2.0 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 43 10 35 57 5
Iron mg/kg DM 57 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.1 3.7 12
Arginine % protein 11.0 0.7 9.5 12.3 19
Aspartic acid % protein 9.9 0.5 9.2 11.1 12
Cystine % protein 1.5 0.2 1.2 1.8 19
Glutamic acid % protein 22.8 1.4 20.8 25.0 12
Glycine % protein 4.1 0.1 3.9 4.4 11
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.1 2.4 2.9 17
Isoleucine % protein 4.2 0.2 3.9 4.4 17
Leucine % protein 6.9 0.4 6.2 7.8 18
Lysine % protein 4.7 0.2 4.5 5.1 27
Methionine % protein 0.7 0.1 0.5 0.8 18
Phenylalanine % protein 4.0 0.5 3.1 5.4 14
Proline % protein 4.3 0.3 3.7 4.6 11
Serine % protein 5.1 0.2 4.8 5.4 12
Threonine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.1 3.6 22
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.1 0.8 1.0 16
Tyrosine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.3 4.0 14
Valine % protein 3.9 0.2 3.4 4.3 18
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 2.1 1.5 0.0 3.6 10
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.9 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 89.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 18.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 79.9 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 77 16 50 93 6
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 64.8 5.8 64.8 83.2 3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.2 1.4 13.2 17.2 3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 83.1 79.7 86.4 2
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 87.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998; AFZ, 2011; Ashes et al., 1978; Barnett et al., 1981; Batterham et al., 1981; Batterham et al., 1984; Batterham, 1979; Buraczewska et al., 1993; Cavaliere et al., 1989; Cherrière et al., 2003; CIRAD, 1991; Eggum et al., 1993; Faurie et al., 1992; Fekete et al., 1986; Freer et al., 1984; Gdala et al., 1996; Gdala et al., 1997; King, 1981; Maillard et al., 1990; Mancuso, 1996; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Smolders et al., 1990; Tamminga et al., 1990; Taverner et al., 1983; Valentine et al., 1987; Valentine et al., 1988

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.1 1.7 85.5 91.5 9
Crude protein % DM 43.0 3.5 34.4 48.4 10
Crude fibre % DM 16.3 2.2 13.5 20.2 7
NDF % DM 24.4 2.3 21.6 28.6 7
ADF % DM 20.1 2.2 18.4 24.6 7
Lignin % DM 2.1 1.2 1.4 4.9 8
Ether extract % DM 5.4 0.4 4.6 6.3 10
Ash % DM 5.0 0.9 3.6 6.5 7
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 6.9 1
Total sugars % DM 5.1 4.1 6.0 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.9 0.4 19.7 20.9 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.9 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 9.2 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.2 3.2 3.2 2
Arginine % protein 10.8 0.8 9.9 11.5 3
Aspartic acid % protein 10.0 9.8 10.1 2
Cystine % protein 2.0 0.2 1.5 2.2 7
Glutamic acid % protein 24.6 24.6 24.6 2
Glycine % protein 4.0 0.3 3.8 4.3 3
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.1 2.5 2.8 4
Isoleucine % protein 3.8 0.1 3.7 3.9 4
Leucine % protein 7.7 0.1 7.5 7.8 4
Lysine % protein 5.0 0.1 4.8 5.2 7
Methionine % protein 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.8 7
Phenylalanine % protein 3.7 0.5 3.3 4.4 4
Proline % protein 3.9 3.9 4.0 2
Serine % protein 4.8 4.7 4.8 2
Threonine % protein 3.2 0.0 3.1 3.2 7
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.1 0.8 1.0 7
Tyrosine % protein 2.7 0.2 2.5 3.0 4
Valine % protein 3.6 0.1 3.5 3.8 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.8 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 89.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 64.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.5 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.3 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.5 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 10.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998; AFZ, 2011; Buraczewska et al., 1993; Cavaliere et al., 1989; Gdala et al., 1996; Gdala et al., 1997; Guillaume, 1978; Van Etten et al., 1961

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Crude protein % DM 6.7 1
Crude fibre % DM 49.9 1
NDF % DM 77.6 1
ADF % DM 58.3 1
Lignin % DM 9.9 1
Ash % DM 4.7 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 6.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.7 1
Manganese mg/kg DM 104 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 34 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 49.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.6 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 11.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 12.3 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 88.4 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.1 1
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 88.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Kirsch et al., 1938

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.8 1.0 87.1 89.5 5
Crude protein % DM 37.5 4.7 33.6 45.0 5
Crude fibre % DM 13.9 2.1 11.1 16.2 5
Ether extract % DM 5.0 1
Ash % DM 4.8 1
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 10.6 3.4 6.3 13.4 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.7 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.6 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 68.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 90.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; DLG, 1961

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/279 Last updated on March 28, 2017, 18:46