Detoxification is a prerequisite for the utilization of rubber seed products as feed ingredients.
Rubber seed meal contains from 0.002% to 0.09% hydrogen cyanide (HCN), which may cause acute toxicity and death. The seed contains linamarin, a cyanogenic glucoside, and linamarase, an enzyme. They are separated inside the seed, but interact and release HCN when the seed is ground or broken (Fuller, 2004; Göhl, 1982; Rajaguru et al., 1979). The high temperature of normal processing of rubber seed meal destroys the linamarase and renders the meal harmless, as well as boiling, particularly in acid water, and long storage (for at least six months). However, undetoxified rubber seed cake must not be wetted before feeding (Göhl, 1982).
In pigs, the addition of sulphur-amino acids helps to detoxify rubber seed meal by turning HCN into thiocyanate, but this compound prevents thyroid from fixing iodine and causes goitrogenic problems (Ong, 1989).
In poultry, rubber seed meal was shown to contain an anti-fertility factor that resulted in decreases in sperm quality in cockerels (Ravindran et al., 1987).