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Animal feed resources information system
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Feedipedia

Rice forage

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 
Asian rice, lowland rice, rice, upland rice, riz, reis, chavel, riso, ine, arroz
Synonyms 
Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza sativa var. affinis Körn., Oryza sativa var. erythroceros Körn., Oryza sativa var. flavoacies Kara-Murza ex Zhuk., Oryza sativa subsp. indica Kato., Oryza sativa cv. italica Alef., Oryza sativa subsp. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. melanacra Körn., Oryza sativa var. suberythroceros Kanevsk, Oryza sativa var. vulgaris Körn., Oryza sativa var. zeravschanica Brches ex Katzaroff, nom. nud. (USDA, 2009)
Related feed(s) 
Description 
Rice (Oryza sativa) is an annual tufted grass, 0.5 to 1.8 m high (up to 5 m in deep water species) (Merteens, 2006) with usually 4 to 5 tillers. Inflorescence is a panicle, 50 cm long, bearing 50 to 500 spikelets. Spikelets contain 3 flowers, 2 of which are sterile. Fruit is a whitish to brownish grey, ovoid or ellipsoid caryopsis.
About 100.000 rice cultivars have been developed. Cultivars from Indica group are tall, leafy, strongly tillering, sensitive to photoperiod, resistant to diseases and unfavourable growing conditions. Cultivars from Japonica group are small, less tillering, less leafy, early maturing, resistant to lodging.
Rice is often grown as first crop in rotation or intercropped with cassava, maize, sorghum or cowpea. It can also be grown as sole crop and 2 or 3 crops/year may be obtained in many parts of the tropics.
Rice is one of the two most important staple foods with wheat. Rice production results in numerous products and by-products. After the harvest, the whole seed (rough rice, paddy) is processed into brown rice (cargo rice) by removing the hulls (chaff). The brown rice undergoes a series of operations that remove the germ and the bran fractions until obtaining the final white rice (polished rice). Rice straw is used to feed animals. Chaff is used as fuel, bedding, absorbent or packing material. The bran contains 14-18% oil that can be extracted and used in cooking as an anti-corrosive agent. Full-fat bran, defatted bran are used as feedstuffs.
Distribution 
Rice originates from Asia where it is known to have been growing since 6500 BC. It was then brought to all tropical regions within centuries. Rice grows from 53°N in China to 35°S in Australia. The optimal growing conditions are: 20-30°C average day-temperature with night temperature over 15°C; fertile, heavy soils, 6.5-7 pH. Most varieties ("swamp rice", "lowland rice") must be planted in stagnant water and require 200 mm rainfall/month or equivalent amount from irrigation, whereas others ("mountain rice" or "upland rice") require less irrigation and 750 mm rainfall on a 3-4 months period and no dessication.
Environmental impact 
Irrigated rice causes anaerobic fermentation in the soil, subsequently producing high amounts of CH4 (6 to 29% of the total amount of anthropogenic CH4 emissions) one of the most important greenhouse gases (Neue et al., 1993). Lodging also causes acidification and increases salinity. Water specific demand for rice is ranging from 2000 to 3000 l/kg which is slightly higher than other crops like legumes or wheat (Hoekstra, 2003).
Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 
Excessive feeding of rice straw produces harmful effects, as it contains oxalic acid which binds the calcium in the diet. This effect can be reduced by soaking the straw in water or by neutralizing it with a weak solution of calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide.
Ruminants 
Dry rice stalks minus the flowers or grains, called rice straw, are fairly palatable but usually insufficient for animal maintenance.
Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 85.0 1
Crude protein % DM 8.2 1
Crude fibre % DM 32.0 1
Ether extract % DM 1.8 1
Ash % DM 15.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.7 *
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 62.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 58.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 50.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Talapatra et al., 1949

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:55

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 34.6 3.1 31.8 39.8 5
Crude protein % DM 10.3 5.0 3.3 19.5 9
Crude fibre % DM 31.0 4.3 25.9 38.1 9
Ether extract % DM 2.0 0.5 1.1 2.9 9
Ash % DM 19.1 2.3 15.9 23.7 9
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.9 0.9 1.9 4.5 6
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 1.0 0.8 3.6 6
Potassium g/kg DM 16.0 4.7 10.0 23.4 6
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 0.6 1.0 2.2 6
Manganese mg/kg DM 50 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 48 1
Copper mg/kg DM 9 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.4 7.0 7.8 2
Arginine % protein 4.0 3.2 4.8 2
Aspartic acid % protein 7.7 6.8 8.7 2
Cystine % protein 0.7 0.5 1.0 2
Glutamic acid % protein 10.3 10.3 10.4 2
Glycine % protein 5.2 4.5 5.9 2
Histidine % protein 1.6 1.4 1.7 2
Isoleucine % protein 8.0 7.8 8.2 2
Leucine % protein 9.1 8.7 9.4 2
Lysine % protein 4.8 4.0 5.6 2
Methionine % protein 2.2 2.1 2.3 2
Phenylalanine % protein 5.4 5.1 5.7 2
Proline % protein 5.2 5.0 5.3 2
Serine % protein 4.7 4.6 4.8 2
Threonine % protein 4.6 4.3 5.0 2
Tryptophan % protein 2.2 2.2 2.3 2
Tyrosine % protein 4.2 3.8 4.6 2
Valine % protein 6.4 5.9 6.9 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 66.2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 63.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 58.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Butterworth, 1963; CIRAD, 1991; Patel, 1966

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:55

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/415 Last updated on March 16, 2010, 17:13