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Mustard oil meal and mustard bran

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Mustard, white mustard, black mustard, Indian mustard, leaf mustard

  • Mustard oil meal, mustard oilmeal, mustard oil cake, mustard oilcake
  • Mustard bran
Related feed(s) 
Description 

The name "mustard" is given to various species, the most common being white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), black mustard (Brassica nigra Koch) and Indian or leaf mustard (Brassica juncea Coss.). Mustard is cultivated for its seeds which yield oils and are used to make a condiment. It is occasionally grown (like rape or green manure) as a cover crop for fodder. Mustard seeds contain a fixed oil (30-35%), which is usually extracted by cold pressing. Though edible, it is used mainly as an industrial oil. A second, very different oil is obtained by grinding the seeds and treating the flour with water to cause a chemical action between an enzyme and a glucoside, thereby producing an oil that is not present as such in the seeds.

Distribution 

Produced extensively in Europe, North America, China, India and Australia.

Environmental impact 

Mustard bran

The production of the mustard condiment generates high amounts of mustard bran that are deleterious to the environment and are costly to eliminate. Using mustard bran to feed animals may alleviate this problem (Tisserand, 2003).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Oil meal

Detoxified mustard-oil meal has been used for all classes of livestock.

Mustard bran

Mustard bran is relatively rich in protein (15-20 % DM), oil (11-19 % DM), fibre (crude fibre 15-25 % DM) and ash (13-15 % DM). It is also particularly rich in NaCl (9-13 % DM).

Potential constraints 

Oil meal

In black mustard the enzyme myrosinase acts on a glucoside - sinigrin - to produce a volatile, very irritating oil. In white mustard the same enzyme acts on a different glucoside - sinalbin - to produce a less irritating oil than that of black mustard. This oil is diluted to make mustard plasters. If the oilcake is used for animal feed, the toxic substances must be evaporated by prolonged steaming (2 hours) or must be extracted. Sinigrin, being water soluble, can be extracted in the following way: the fat-free meal is heated with five parts water to 85 C for one hour and then filtered, after which the residue is washed five times with water. Mustard meal also contains toxic substances affecting the thyroid.

Mustard bran

Mustard bran contains allyl isothiocyanate, the compound responsible for the condiment's characteristic heat. Allyl thiocyanate depresses intake in animals. It can be removed by processing wet mustard bran with ammonium bicarbonate (5 %) (Tisserand, 2003).

Ruminants 

Oil meal

Up to 1.5 kg per day can be fed to adult cattle, which also can accept up to 10% untreated mustard meal in the diet. Mustard meal should be mixed with other, more appetizing feeds.

Mustard bran

Mustard bran is palatable to ruminants but its high NaCl content makes animals thirsty. Wet and dry mustard brans have a low OM digestibility (41-44 %) and energy value. Dry mustard bran can be used as a protein source in concentrate supplements. Untreated wet mustard bran can be included at 10-15 % in maize silage before ensiling. Ensilage destroys the ally isothiocyanate while mustard bran improves silage preservation and increase its nitrogen content (Tisserand, 2003).

Mustard bran can be used to feed sheep and average-producing beef cattle (Tisserand, 2003). In dairy cows, mustard bran replacing 26 % of the crude protein from soybean meal (8 % of the diet) resulted in increased milk product and dit not affect adversely DMI or milk components and quality (including odour and taste) (Maiga et al., 2007).

Pigs 

Detoxified mustard meal has also used for pigs (20% of the ration).

Poultry 

Detoxified mustard meal has been used for poultry (9% of the ration).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.4 88.9 89.8 2
Crude protein % DM 34.9 3.1 33.1 38.5 3
Crude fibre % DM 7.1 3.5 10.6 2
Ether extract % DM 9.4 8.1 10.7 2
Ash % DM 8.3 6.7 9.9 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.5 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 11.1 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 86.9 *
a (N) % 46.4 1
b (N) % 57.7 1
c (N) h-1 0.060 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 81 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 75 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 79.0 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Huque et al., 1996; Lim Han Kuo, 1967; Mondal et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:38

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.0 1
Crude protein % DM 26.0 1
Crude fibre % DM 18.2 1
Ether extract % DM 2.3 1
Ash % DM 7.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.7 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 7.6 1
Cystine % protein 2.4 1
Glycine % protein 4.7 1
Histidine % protein 2.5 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.8 1
Leucine % protein 6.3 1
Lysine % protein 4.4 1
Methionine % protein 1.5 1
Phenylalanine % protein 3.7 1
Threonine % protein 3.7 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.6 1
Valine % protein 4.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 70.3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 61.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Miller et al., 1962; Woodman, 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:38

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.7 1
Crude protein % DM 23.4 1
Crude fibre % DM 8.6 1
Ether extract % DM 46.7 1
Ash % DM 5.1 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 28.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.0 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 76.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 21.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Lim Han Kuo, 1967

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:38

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/53 Last updated on December 20, 2013, 0:28

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