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Coffee hulls, fruit pulp and by-products

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Description
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Common names 

Coffee, coffee tree, Arabian coffee, arabica coffee [English]; caféier d'Arabie [French]; caféeiro, café, cafeiro [Portuguese]; cafeto arábico, cafeto de Arabia [Spanish] (USDA, 2009)

Product names: coffee pulp, coffee hulls, parchment, coffee oil meal, coffee grounds, instant coffee by-product, coffee leaves

Related feed(s) 
Description 

The coffee bean (Coffea arabica L.) is used to make one of the most popular beverages in the world and considerable amounts of coffee bean are processed every day, leading to large quantities of by-products that may be used to feed livestock.

The coffee tree is an evergreen, perennial, erect shrub. It is 2 to 5 m high in plantations but can reach up to 15 m in the wild. Stems are opposite, rather thin, first semi-erect then pendulous. Leaves are opposite, oval shaped, 10 to 15 cm long and 4-6 cm broad. They are dark green, with slightly crinkled surfaces (Ecoport, 2009). Flowers are borne in clusters along the branches. They are white, fragrant and star-shaped.

The coffee tree begins to bear fruits 6 to 7 years after planting as a seedling and will be productive for 30-40 years. Average yield in Kenya is 2 to 3 t/ha and 0.5 t/ha in Brazil. The fruit, or cherry, is a reddish 2-seeded berry, 1 to 1.5 cm long and 6 to 7 mm broad (Ecocrop, 2009). The cherry contains 4 anatomical entities: the beans or endosperm (55% DM of the fruit), the hulls or endocarp (12% DM of the fruit), a mucilage or mesocarp also called pulp (5% DM of the fruit), and an outer skin or exocarp (9% DM of the fruit).

Coffee pulp, also identified as coffee fruit without seeds, or beans, is an abundant agricultural by-product. It represents around 43% of the weight of the coffee fruit on a fresh weight basis, or approximately 28% (26-30%) of the coffee fruit on a dry weight basis. The other by-products of coffee fruit processing are the mucilage, about 5% (5-14%) of the dry weight of the fruit, coffee hulls, representing 12% (10-12%) of the weight of the fruit on a dry weight basis and coffee parchment (the parchment is the thin skin of the bean that is removed after bean milling, prior to roasting). There are also instant coffee by-products such as coffee grounds: their ether extract content is fairly high.

Distribution 

The coffee tree is native to the wet highland forests of Ethiopia, Sudan and Kenya (Ecocrop, 2009). It was introduced into Arabia in the 15th century and to the West Indies and Central America in the 18th century, and then reached India and Sri Lanka (Orwa et al., 2009).

It grows in the subtropics within 22°N and 27°S in deep soils, from sea level to an altitude of 1000 m and where annual rainfall ranges from 1500 mm to 2000 mm. In equatorial regions, it may be cultivated within an altitude between 1300 m and 2800 m or even higher. A moderate dry period is necessary to induce flowering. It is also reported to withstand moderate frost but this results in a lower harvest (Ecocrop, 2009).

Processes 

The coffee pulp is obtained either by subjecting fruit to a depulping operation using water, or by first drying it, followed by a dehulling operation.

Wet processing

For the wet process, after harvest, the coffee berries are transported to the coffee processing plant, where they are dumped into a tank of water to remove spoiled, green fruits and foreign material. With the help of water, used as a transport mechanism, the berries are taken to the pulping machines that by pressure separate the beans from the coffee pulp. Running water moves the beans into a fermentation tank that removes the remaining mucilage and allows further processing. The coffee pulp is transported by water to be stock-piled for later removal or simply allowed to ferment naturally. Coffee pulp can be used as a feedstuff or as an organic fertilizer to be applied to coffee trees (Bressani, 1991).

Dry process

The dry process consists in either allowing the fruit to dry on the trees, or by harvesting fresh fruit and drying it. Once it is dried, the fruit is dehulled. The high water content of the pulp from the wet process causes problems in handling, transport, stability and processing. For feed applications, the pulp should be dried as quickly as possible to avoid spoilage, or should be preserved, e.g. by ensiling. The wet coffee pulp is subjected to a drying operation with or without partial water removal, by pressure, with or without the addition of calcium hydroxide. Drying is accomplished by solar dehydration, by forced hot air-drying, or a combination of both. The product obtained is dried coffee pulp (Bressani, 1991).

Ensiling

An alternative process is ensiling with 4-6% sugar cane molasses. Although fresh coffee pulp can be directly ensiled, better quality is obtained if the moisture content is around 75%. A well-packed trench silo holds an average of 325 kg of coffee pulp per cubic metre. Additives, such as urea (10%), sodium metabisulphite (0.3-0.5%), calcium hydroxide (2%), and mixtures of inorganic acids (10% HCl + H2SO4), can be included. A different and attractive ensiling process is to mix grasses, sorghum or corn, with coffee pulp in layers of about 30 cm with or without sugar cane molasses (4-6%). The silage, whether of coffee pulp alone, or mixed with grasses, is ready to be used in about 3 weeks and if well packed, it can be preserved for up to 18 months. The silage from coffee pulp alone or mixed with other forages can be used as it is, or it can be dehydrated (but this operation is not necessary)(Bressani, 1991).

Environmental impact 

As a perennial evergreen shrub, the coffee tree provides important amounts of litter to the soil and helps to maintain soil organic matter levels as well as cation exchange capacity, thus reducing leaching losses. Caffeine is also referred as to a natural herbicide able to control Amaranthus spinosus seedlings (Orwa et al., 2009).

In some cases, coffee pulp and hulls are thrown into rivers and lakes near the processing regions, which cause serious environmental concerns (Brand et al., 2000).

Feeding livestock with coffee by-products is a way to alleviate their environmental impact. Pulp and hulls may also be used as green manure.

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

The cherry and the leaves contain caffeine, an alkaloid that is a psychoactive stimulant drug, as well as tannins, polyphenols and high amounts of potassium (Bressani, 1982). The presence of these factors contributes to the antinutritional and antiphysiological activity of coffee by-products, as observed in both monogastrics and ruminants, such as low palatability, feed intake, protein digestibility and nitrogen retention. Physical (percolation), chemical (alcohol extraction) or microbiological (fermentation) methods may help reduce caffeine content and enhance animal performances (Brand et al., 2000; Peñaloza et al., 1985; Molina et al., 1974).

Fungi may develop on coffee by-products, which produce toxins harmful to the animal (Bressani, 1991).

Ruminants 

Cattle

In steers, coffee hulls inclusion resulted in decreased body weight gain but used to replace 20 % ground ear maize was economically feasible (Nascimento et al., 2003). Other maximum recommendation levels are 30 % (Ribeiro Filho et al., 2000) and 42 % (Vilela et al., 2001).

In calves and dairy heifers, inclusion of coffee hulls appears to alter animal growth performance (Jarquin et al., 1974a; Souza et al., 2006a; Teixeira et al., 2007). Recommended inclusion levels range from 7 % (Souza et al., 2006a) to 14 % (Teixeira et al., 2007) when coffee hulls replace ground maize or maize silage.

In female cattle, coffee hulls can replace 15% (lactating dairy cows, Rocha et al., 2006), 18% (heifers, Souza et al., 2005) or 25% (lactating dairy cows, Oliveira et al., 2007) of the diet concentrate (maize). Higher levels result in a decreased performance.

Sheep

Coffee hulls have been reported to replace several feeds in sheep diets. It is suggested to feed them with a high energy fodder (Leitao et al., 2005). Recommended inclusion rates range from 15% to 25% of the diet when replacing concentrate and berseem hay, or ground maize respectively (El-Sayed et al., 1999; Souza et al., 2004).

Pigs 

Coffee pulp (dried or not), coffee hulls (sticky or dried) and coffee grounds (a by-product of instant coffee manufacture) have an overall deleterious effect on pigs (Buitrago et al., 1970; Balogun et al., 1973; Balogun et al., 1975; Jarquin et al., 1974b; Oliveira et al., 2001). However, feeding pigs with coffee by-products may still have a role and the following table sums up some recommended levels of inclusion.

Recommended inclusion rate of coffee pulp in pig diets

Product Level Country Reference
Coffee pulp (dried or sticky) 5% in growing pigs Brazil Parra et al., 2008
Coffee pulp (dried or sticky) 9.5% in finishing pigs Brazil Parra et al., 2008
Dried coffee pulp 5% in growing and finishing pigs Brazil Oliveira et al., 2001
Dried coffee pulp 20% maize replacement in finishing pigs Brazil Oliveira et al., 2002
Dried coffee pulp 30% wheat bran replacement in growing pigs Ghana Okai et al., 1991
Poultry 

In broiler diets, dried coffee pulp has a low nutritive value and the maximum recommended level is 2.5% (Donkoh et al., 1988). Drying followed by several months of storage may reduce the amount of antinutritional factors (Bressani et al., 1973). Coffee pulp fermented with Aspergillus niger was used successfully at 10% of the diet (Peñaloza et al., 1985).

Fish 

The use of coffee pulp has been studied in tilapia (Oreochromis aureus). Its use is limited by the levels of tannins, caffeine and fibre. A dietary inclusion level of 13% coffee pulp in the diet did not affect growth and feed efficiency when compared with the control diet. However, caffeine dietary levels between 2.4 g/kg to 4.6 g/kg tended to reduce fish growth, feed intake and nutrient digestibility in tilapia fingerlings. Bacterial inoculation was found to be a promising way to increase the nutritive value of coffee pulp for tilapia (Rojas, 2002).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.5 3.2 83.5 94.8 18
Crude protein % DM 9.4 1.2 7.2 12.5 19
Crude fibre % DM 36.0 10.0 20.2 51.8 11
NDF % DM 61.8 11.4 35.9 76.4 14
ADF % DM 51.4 12.2 24.5 68.1 13
Lignin % DM 16.3 7.3 10.2 31.7 9
Ether extract % DM 1.7 1.4 0.3 5.5 18
Ash % DM 6.5 2.1 1.3 9.6 19
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.5 2.1 18.3 21.9 3
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.5 2.6 0.3 10.7 15
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.4 0.9 0.2 3.6 15
Potassium g/kg DM 22.6 11.3 2.0 36.8 10
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 0.2 0.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.9 0.4 0.2 1.6 10
Manganese mg/kg DM 31 20 42 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 56 84 8 153 3
Copper mg/kg DM 18 2 16 20 3
Iron mg/kg DM 233 122 144 372 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
a (N) % 52.8 1
b (N) % 22.4 1
c (N) h-1 0.026 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 62 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 60 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 33.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 16.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Barcelos et al., 2001; Carvalho Junior et al., 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Gowda et al., 2004; Leitao et al., 2005; Marcondes et al., 2009; Oliveira et al., 2007; Parra et al., 2008; Ribeiro Filho et al., 2000; Souza et al., 2004; Souza et al., 2006; Tavares et al., 2005; Teixeira et al., 2007; Vilela et al., 2001

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:20

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.8 2.8 87.2 95.9 7
Crude protein % DM 11.3 1.9 8.4 14.0 8
Crude fibre % DM 18.5 1.7 16.2 20.1 4
NDF % DM 49.0 14.0 31.1 68.5 7
ADF % DM 46.0 14.3 29.6 64.9 7
Lignin % DM 9.1 3.7 5.6 13.0 3
Ether extract % DM 2.3 1.4 1.2 3.8 5
Ash % DM 8.9 2.8 6.0 12.7 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.2 0.2 17.0 17.3 3
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.2 3.0 3.4 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.3 1.3 1.3 2
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.5 1
Arginine % protein 2.8 2.2 3.3 2
Aspartic acid % protein 7.1 1
Cystine % protein 0.3 1
Glutamic acid % protein 7.7 1
Glycine % protein 4.2 3.9 4.5 2
Histidine % protein 2.5 2.1 2.8 2
Isoleucine % protein 3.3 2.8 3.8 2
Leucine % protein 4.7 4.6 4.7 2
Lysine % protein 3.4 2.7 4.2 2
Methionine % protein 0.3 0.2 0.4 2
Phenylalanine % protein 3.0 2.9 3.1 2
Proline % protein 3.7 1
Serine % protein 3.3 1
Threonine % protein 3.1 2.9 3.4 2
Tyrosine % protein 1.9 1.5 2.3 2
Valine % protein 3.7 3.7 3.8 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 9.2 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 61.0 53.0 66.8 2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.5 9.0 11.6 2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 30.6 21.5 39.7 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abate et al., 1986; Barcelos et al., 2001; Braham et al., 1979; CIRAD, 1991; Okai et al., 1984; Orskov et al., 1992; Parra et al., 2008; Tuah et al., 1996; Vilela et al., 2001

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:20

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 95.3 3.3 90.3 97.3 4
Crude protein % DM 6.0 1.8 4.1 7.9 4
Crude fibre % DM 69.2 1
NDF % DM 83.6 7.1 75.7 89.4 3
ADF % DM 74.1 10.2 62.4 80.9 3
Ash % DM 1.3 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Vilela et al., 2001

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:20

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.9 2.7 85.3 94.2 8
Crude protein % DM 10.9 1.3 8.2 12.6 10
Crude fibre % DM 43.6 7.7 31.7 59.4 10
NDF % DM 70.6 7.6 59.6 84.0 9
ADF % DM 66.3 6.7 59.3 77.4 10
Lignin % DM 22.6 4.6 18.8 31.0 8
Ether extract % DM 23.5 3.9 15.6 29.0 10
Ash % DM 1.8 2.1 0.4 7.4 11
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.8 5
Total sugars % DM 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.4 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 25.0 0.6 24.1 25.8 7
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.0 1.7 1.0 6.2 8
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.3 0.3 0.2 1.0 8
Potassium g/kg DM 0.5 0.3 0.2 1.0 7
Sodium g/kg DM 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.7 8
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.5 8
Manganese mg/kg DM 52 43 32 139 6
Zinc mg/kg DM 19 17 9 54 6
Copper mg/kg DM 38 10 29 57 6
Iron mg/kg DM 2064 3994 198 9208 5
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.0 0.1 4.0 4.2 5
Arginine % protein 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.7 5
Aspartic acid % protein 3.0 0.2 2.9 3.3 5
Cystine % protein 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.4 5
Glutamic acid % protein 12.9 1.6 10.5 14.3 5
Glycine % protein 4.7 0.1 4.5 4.8 5
Histidine % protein 1.6 0.1 1.5 1.8 5
Isoleucine % protein 4.2 0.2 3.9 4.4 5
Leucine % protein 8.5 0.2 8.3 8.8 5
Lysine % protein 1.4 0.2 1.2 1.7 5
Methionine % protein 1.2 0.1 1.2 1.3 5
Phenylalanine % protein 5.2 0.2 5.0 5.4 5
Proline % protein 5.6 1
Serine % protein 1.6 0.1 1.4 1.7 5
Threonine % protein 2.6 0.7 2.1 3.8 5
Tyrosine % protein 3.1 0.2 2.8 3.4 5
Valine % protein 5.7 0.2 5.4 5.9 5
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 31.0 29.3 32.6 2
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 37.7 35.8 39.6 2
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.4 9.1 10.0 2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.5 6.7 8.0 2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 0.0 0.0 0.0 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; ADAS, 1990; AFZ, 2011; Morgan et al., 1980; Sikka et al., 1985; Wiseman, 1984

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:20

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.3 0.8 90.3 93.6 16
Crude protein % DM 16.7 2.0 9.9 19.3 16
Crude fibre % DM 18.7 1
Ether extract % DM 5.9 1
Ash % DM 8.2 1.4 6.9 13.0 16
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 6.2 2.4 3.2 11.6 15
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2 0.2 1.0 1.6 15
Potassium g/kg DM 29.8 4.6 21.7 37.2 15
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 15
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.4 0.8 1.6 4.5 15

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

FAO/US. Dpt of Health, 1968; Pozy et al., 1996

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:18

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 95.7 1
Crude protein % DM 16.1 1
NDF % DM 63.5 1
ADF % DM 32.6 1
Lignin % DM 13.0 1
Ether extract % DM 1.6 1
Ash % DM 5.0 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 11.6 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.6 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Wohlt et al., 1981

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:21

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Coffee hulls, fruit pulp and by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/549 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:33

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)