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Tadpole meal

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Tadpole meal

Species 
Description 

Toads are extremely common in some regions. For instance, Amietophrynus maculatus (Bufonidae, also known as Bufo maculatus or Bufo maculata), one of the commonest toads found in Sub-Saharan Africa, has a very high reproductive rate and breeds during the rainy season, producing massive numbers of tadpoles. These tadpoles are a potential feed ingredient, particularly for fish. In Nigeria, there have been several attempts to utilize this resource in order to reduce the feed costs of aquaculture. Utilizing the tadpoles for fish feeding may also be a means of controlling the toad population (Sogbesan et al., 2007a).

Processes 

Tadpoles used in feeding experiments in Nigeria have been grown in tanks and fed a diet consisting of fish meal, groundnut meal and maize. Before drying, they may have been boiled or skinned to remove the skin alkaloids (Sogbesan et al., 2007a).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

The crude protein of dried tadpoles (Bufonidae) is in the 43-48% DM range. The DM also contains about 11-12% lipids and 25-26% ash. The sodium, calcium, and magnesium contents are within the required amounts for catfish but phosphorus may have to be supplemented (Sogbesan et al., 2008).

Potential constraints 

Consumption of some toads, frogs and their tadpoles is potentially harmful due to the presence of alkaloid toxins concentrated in the skin and other parts of the animal. These alkaloids have been sequestered and retained from dietary sources (such as arthropods) during their life cycle (Sogbesan et al., 2007a; Daly et al., 2002).

Fish 

African catfish species

In catfish (Clarias gariepinus), no significant difference was observed in growth, protein digestibility and carcass characteristics when tadpole meal replaced fish meal in the diets of a 180-day growth trial (Fagbenro et al., 1993).

Tadpole meal was found to be a satisfactory substitute for fish meal fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis in a 12-week growth trial. Growth rate, feed conversion, protein efficiency ratio and apparent net protein utilization was not found to be different when tadpole replace 100% of the fish meal in the diet (Ayinla et al., 1994). With Heterobranchus bidorsalis fingerlings fed diets where tadpole meal replaced up to 100% fish meal, the best cost-benefit ratios were obtained at substitution rates of 25 and 50% (7.5% and 15% of the diet respectively). However, there was a clear decline in growth rate, physiological parameters and survival when the proportion of tadpole meal increased in the diet, which may have been due to the presence of proteolytic and toxic alkaloids in the meal, indicating that additional processing may be necessary (Sogbesan et al., 2007b).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.4 1
Crude protein % DM 45.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 3.8 1
Ether extract % DM 10.7 1
Ash % DM 26.1 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.4 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 24.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.2 1
Potassium g/kg DM 7.9 1
Sodium g/kg DM 5.9 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.6 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 3.8 1
Histidine % protein 2.3 1
Isoleucine % protein 2.3 1
Leucine % protein 3.7 1
Lysine % protein 6.7 1
Methionine % protein 1.7 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 1
Threonine % protein 3.4 1
Valine % protein 3.9 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Sogbesan et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:44

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.2 1
Crude protein % DM 43.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 3.8 1
Ether extract % DM 11.3 1
Ash % DM 26.0 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.4 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 25.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 5.7 1
Potassium g/kg DM 2.1 1
Sodium g/kg DM 6.1 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.8 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 3.6 1
Histidine % protein 2.7 1
Isoleucine % protein 2.3 1
Leucine % protein 3.3 1
Lysine % protein 7.0 1
Methionine % protein 2.1 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.0 1
Threonine % protein 3.7 1
Valine % protein 3.9 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Sogbesan et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:44

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.5 1
Crude protein % DM 47.8 1
Crude fibre % DM 3.0 1
Ether extract % DM 11.6 1
Ash % DM 27.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.6 1
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 25.9 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 5.0 1
Potassium g/kg DM 2.1 1
Sodium g/kg DM 6.3 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.1 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 4.0 1
Histidine % protein 3.0 1
Isoleucine % protein 2.7 1
Leucine % protein 3.4 1
Lysine % protein 7.1 1
Methionine % protein 3.1 1
Phenylalanine % protein 4.0 1
Threonine % protein 3.6 1
Valine % protein 3.4 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Sogbesan et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:44

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Tran G., 2015. Tadpole meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/668 Last updated on June 3, 2015, 10:24

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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