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Combretum (Combretum aculeatum)

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Synonyms 

Combretum denhardtiorum Engl. & Diels, Combretum leuconili Schweinf., Combretum ovale G.Don, Combretum stefaninianum Pamp., Commiphora holstii Engl. - non Combretum holstii Engl., Poivrea aculeata (Vent.) DC., Poivrea hartmanniana Schweinf. - non Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf., Poivrea ovalis (G.Don) Walp. (USDA, 2009)

Feed categories 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Combretum aculeatum Vent. is a small tree or shrub up to 4 m high. It has elliptic alternate and more or less pubescent leaves (Orwa et al., 2009). It is a notable browse tree in several African countries.

Distribution 

Combretum aculeatum is native to Mauritania, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, Sudan, Guinea, Nigeria, Kenya, Tanzania, Somalia and Uganda. It grows in dry savannah on sandy or loamy soils.

Nutritional aspects
Ruminants 

This tree is highly sought after by animals, which consume the leaves, flowers and young shoots. It is one of the most valued fodders by cattle, goats, sheep and camels in eastern Kenya (Anttila et al., 1993). The browse provided is very rich in protein. The trees withstand repeated browsing (Toutain, 1980). Annual forage production ranges from 150 to 600 kg DM/ha with an average of 45-60 kg crude protein/ha (Le Houérou, 1980).

It is reported to be more digestible than Leucaena leucocephala for goats and sheeps, and it is recommended to supplement chopped sorghum with dried leaves of this shrub (Bosma et al., 1995). A diet with 30% dried leaves of Combretum aculeatum was as digestible as one supplemented with agro-industrial by-products and allowed the absorption of more OM, especially by goats (Bosma et al., 1997). Combretum aculeatum resulted in decreased herbage intake, digestibility and live-weight gain in Oudah rams in Mauritania (Sangaré et al., 2003).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 56.1 51.5 60.7 2
Crude protein % DM 9.1 1.6 7.4 10.5 3
Crude fibre % DM 28.9 6.7 21.2 33.2 3
NDF % DM 52.6 1
ADF % DM 42.0 1
Lignin % DM 14.8 1
Ether extract % DM 2.6 2.0 1.2 4.9 3
Ash % DM 8.3 1.4 7.1 9.8 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 21.8 15.8 27.8 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2 1.1 1.3 2
Potassium g/kg DM 5.8 5.3 6.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.6 1.7 3.5 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 16.7 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 28.5 1
Crude protein % DM 16.1 4.7 10.9 29.8 17
Crude fibre % DM 21.3 4.4 16.8 29.1 7
NDF % DM 36.0 5.4 26.3 44.3 9
ADF % DM 27.3 3.3 21.7 33.5 9
Lignin % DM 6.8 1.9 4.6 9.9 9
Ether extract % DM 4.7 1.9 2.9 8.1 7
Ash % DM 9.2 1.2 6.4 11.7 17
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 15.1 14.4 15.7 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.8 2.6 4.9 2
Potassium g/kg DM 18.4 13.4 23.4 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.1 3.1 3.2 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 75 64 86 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 58 42 75 2
Copper mg/kg DM 25 24 26 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 20.2 7.7 5.3 29.6 7
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.2 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 39.4 28.5 50.4 2
Crude protein % DM 13.4 3.1 8.4 20.0 35
Crude fibre % DM 23.0 3.9 17.3 31.8 18
NDF % DM 39.6 5.5 32.6 53.5 24
ADF % DM 30.9 5.7 21.7 45.2 25
Lignin % DM 8.7 3.0 4.8 16.4 25
Ether extract % DM 3.4 1.2 2.0 6.2 21
Ash % DM 10.5 1.7 7.8 14.8 35
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 19.2 7.9 12.1 36.0 7
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.5 1.3 0.7 4.9 8
Potassium g/kg DM 16.6 4.1 13.2 23.4 5
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.8 0.4 2.3 3.2 5
Manganese mg/kg DM 75 64 86 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 58 42 75 2
Copper mg/kg DM 25 24 26 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 18.0 7.6 1.1 31.9 18
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.2 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Sangaré et al., 2003

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 94.0 1
Crude protein % DM 17.1 1
Crude fibre % DM 35.3 1
NDF % DM 55.3 1
ADF % DM 43.6 1
Lignin % DM 13.7 1
Ether extract % DM 15.6 1
Ash % DM 4.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 22.4 *
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 1.4 1
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 34.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:22

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Combretum (Combretum aculeatum). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/705 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:34

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)