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Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), grain

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Pearl millet, candle millet, dark millet, bajra, indian millet, horse millet [English]; bulrush millet [English/Australia]; cattail millet [English/USA]; mahangu [English/Namibia]; mijo perla, mijo negro, panizo mamoso [Spanish]; mil à chandelle, millet perle, mil pénicillaire, petit mil [French]; milheto-pérola [Portuguese/Brazil]; mexoeira [Portuguese/Mozambique]; parelgierst [Dutch]; mwele, miwele, mlezi [Swahili]; ثيوم أغبر [Arabic]; બાજરો [Gujarati]; बजड़ी [Hindi]; トウジンビエ [Japanese]; ಸಜ್ಜೆ [Kannada]; ബജ്റ [Malayalam]; बाजरी [Marathi]; aфриканское просо [Russian]; கம்பு [Tamil]; సజ్జలు [Telugu]

Synonyms 

Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke, Pennisetum typhoides (Burm. f.) Stapf & CE Hubb, Pennisetum typhoideum Rich., Pennisetum spicatum (L.) Körn., Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. (USDA, 2009)

Description 

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is an annual grass, erect and reaching up to 3 m high with a profuse root system. Culms are slender, 1-3 cm wide. Leaves are alternate, simple, blade linear, pubescent and minutely serrated, up to 1.5 m long x 8 cm wide. The inflorescence is a panicle, 12 to 30 cm long. Fruits are grains whose shape differs according to cultivars. It uses C4 carbon fixation (Andrews et al., 2006).

Pearl millet is considered as a staple food in Africa and India where it is used to make flour, bread, porridge and "couscous" (Ecoport, 2009). As a feedstuff it is mainly grown to produce silage, hay or standover pasture grazed directly (FAO, 2009). Grain is also used as a feedstuff, and by-products (bran, brewers' grains) are available. Grain yields range from 250 kg to 1500 kg/ha, with average 670 kg/ha in Africa and 790 kg/ha in India (Andrews et al., 2006).

Distribution 

Pearl millet is native to the Sahel. It has spread across Africa from West to East, and from there to Southern Africa. It was introduced to India in 3000 BC and later to America, Brazil and Australia (Andrews et al., 2006). It can be grown between 14 and 32°, N and S, and in every dry tropical area. It thrives well where other C4 cereals (maize, sorghum) cannot grow because of drought or heat. It can be found in regions where annual rainfalls range from 125 to 900 mm. Ideal growth temperatures range from 21°C to 35°C. Pearl millet is known to tolerate acid sandy soils and is able to grow in saline soils (FAO, 2009).

Processes 

Pearl millet is hard-hulled and should be ground before being fed to livestock. It should be finely ground: coarse grinding leads to the hard hull splintering into sharp fibres, which can result in internal irritation (Calder, 1960).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Pearl millet grain can be used in ruminant, poultry and pig rations without adversely affecting feed efficiency or weight gain.

Ruminants 

Pearl millet grain replaced up to 10% of corn silage or maize grain in dairy cow and mature goat diets with no deleterious effect on DM intake (Ribeiro et al., 2004; Terrill et al., 1998). In Brazil, pearl millet grain replaced up to 67% of whole maize plant without affecting milk performance (França et al., 2004).

Pigs 

Pigs can be fed up to 60-75% pearl millet in maize/soybean-based diets (Calder, 1960; Moreira et al., 2007; Bastos et al., 2006). However, amino acid supplementation may be required during the finishing stage (Oliveira et al., 2007). One advantage of pearl millet over maize grain in pig feeding is that it gives firmer and whiter fat (Calder, 1960).

Poultry 

Broilers

Pearl millet is a good alternative source of energy in broilers up to 7 weeks old. Broilers can be fed pearl millet/soybean-based diets and it can replace maize in a maize/soybean-based diet. The proposed replacement rates range from 10% to 100%, with most sources suggesting replacing more than 50% of the maize (Udeybir et al., 2009; Udeybir et al., 2007; Choudhary et al., 2005; Davis et al., 2003; Raju et al., 2003). When compared to maize or sorghum, pearl millet was found to have equal or higher nutritive value (Vasan et al., 2008; Evans et al., 2005; Healy et al., 1991), which is confirmed by a meta-analysis of literature data (Batonon et al., 2015). Reconstitution with or without enzymes is interesting as it enhances metabolizable energy and N retention (Manwar et al., 2009; Manwar et al., 2008). Grinding pearl millet has resulted in inconclusive and contradictory results (Vasan et al., 2008; Vasan et al., 2009).

Laying hens

Laying hens can be fed on pearl millet as a maize replacer in soybean/maize-based diets up to 15% of the diet for unground pearl millet (Garcia et al., 2006). In order to guarantee egg production, yolk colour and poly-unsaturated fatty-acids, pearl millet-based rations can be fed to laying hens with flaxseed (6% of the diet) (Amini et al., 2008) or soybean oil supplementation (Muramatsu et al., 2005).

Quails

Laying Japanese quails can be fed pearl millet as a 75% replacer of maize (Seema Agarwal et al., 2006), but pigment supplementation is needed (Leandro et al., 1999).

Ducks

In Pekin ducks, pearl millet can fully replace maize and preserve animal performances (Adeola et al., 1996; Adeola et al., 1994).

Rabbits 

Pearl millet grain has a good nutritive value for rabbits (Rajendra et al., 2000) and can replace 100% of maize in their diets (Furlan et al., 2003).

Fish 

Pearl millet has been successfully tested in several fish species. It is efficiently used by tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and can be included as 10% of the diet during sex-reversal (Boscolo et al., 2002; Meurer et al., 2004). It was also recommended to include it at 20% of the diet of Leporinus macrocephalus in order to minimize feed costs (Nagae et al., 2002). Pearl millet also completely replaced maize in tambacu diets (hybrid Colossoma macropomum female x Piaractus mesopotamicus male) (Silva et al., 2000).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.6 1.7 86.0 93.0 51  
Crude protein % DM 12.4 2.0 8.3 16.7 85  
Crude fibre % DM 2.7 1.2 1.0 6.1 47  
NDF % DM 17.2 4.4 9.4 27.6 15  
ADF % DM 4.2 0.7 3.2 6.1 16  
Lignin % DM 1.0   0.6 1.3 2  
Ether extract % DM 4.9 1.2 2.4 7.5 54  
Ash % DM 2.7 1.4 0.5 8.0 55  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 67.2 6.5 53.9 76.4 10  
Total sugars % DM 2.2 0.2 1.9 2.3 4  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 0.4 18.4 20.0 17 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 0.4 0.2 0.1 1.0 49  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 0.5 2.4 4.4 61  
Potassium g/kg DM 4.2 0.8 2.6 6.3 38  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 3  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.3 0.2 0.9 1.6 23  
Manganese mg/kg DM 21 16 8 62 10  
Zinc mg/kg DM 31 6 22 45 29  
Copper mg/kg DM 6 2 4 11 28  
Iron mg/kg DM 48 18 32 97 23  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 7.5 0.7 6.4 8.2 10  
Arginine % protein 4.5 0.6 3.4 5.8 19  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.6 1.1 5.3 8.9 10  
Cystine % protein 1.6 0.3 1.0 2.3 13  
Glutamic acid % protein 18.6 1.3 16.2 20.2 9  
Glycine % protein 3.1 0.5 2.5 4.0 13  
Histidine % protein 2.3 0.2 1.9 2.7 21  
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 0.5 3.5 5.4 20  
Leucine % protein 9.8 0.6 8.8 10.6 22  
Lysine % protein 2.8 0.4 2.1 3.5 22  
Methionine % protein 2.0 0.3 1.4 2.6 22  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.9 0.4 3.8 5.4 21  
Proline % protein 6.2 0.5 5.5 6.7 6  
Serine % protein 4.5 0.5 3.3 5.0 13  
Threonine % protein 3.7 0.3 3.2 4.2 22  
Tryptophan % protein 1.8 0.2 1.2 2.0 10  
Tyrosine % protein 2.9 0.5 2.0 3.8 15  
Valine % protein 5.3 0.3 4.7 5.9 21  
               
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 1.4 0.5 0.7 1.9 4  
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 16.0       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 88.0         *
OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production) % 78 2 76 80 4  
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.8         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.1         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.5         *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 11.9 0.3 11.5 12.2 4  
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 43.3       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 85.8 6.2 63.1 85.8 11 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 1.3 11.9 16.3 12 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.6 1.2 11.5 15.6 9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.4         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 74.4 10.1 55.4 89.9 12  
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 13.7 0.5 13.3 14.5 4  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abate et al., 1984; Adeola et al., 1995; Adeola et al., 1996; Adeola, 2006; AFZ, 2011; Aganga et al., 2000; Bastos et al., 2002; Bastos et al., 2005; Bastos et al., 2006; Buerkert et al., 1998; Buerkert et al., 2001; Calder, 1960; CIRAD, 1991; CIRAD, 2008; Davis et al., 2003; De Boever et al., 1988; Dewar, 1967; Gelaye et al., 1997; Gomes et al., 2008; Gowda et al., 2004; Haydon et al., 1991; Hill et al., 1990; Hill et al., 1996; Lawrence et al., 1995; Maan et al., 2003; Maliboungou et al., 1998; Mehri et al., 2009; Nwokolo, 1987; Opoku et al., 1981; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970; Parigi-Bini et al., 1991; Patel, 1966; Rao et al., 2000; Rao et al., 2004; Ribeiro et al., 2004; Rodrigues, 2001; Singh et al., 1987; Singh et al., 2005; Walker, 1975

Last updated on 26/11/2015 10:50:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 94.2 1
Crude protein % DM 4.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 32.7 1
Ether extract % DM 1.2 1
Ash % DM 6.8 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.5 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 58.4 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 54.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.0 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 52.2 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Patel, 1966

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.0 1.9 87.9 94.4 35
Crude protein % DM 13.7 1.7 9.8 16.2 39
Crude fibre % DM 5.2 1.3 3.3 7.4 34
NDF % DM 32.9 6.5 22.4 46.2 19
ADF % DM 8.5 0.7 7.5 9.7 18
Lignin % DM 2.1 0.4 1.4 2.9 18
Ether extract % DM 8.6 1.7 5.7 11.0 34
Ash % DM 6.9 2.9 3.5 13.6 35
Total sugars % DM 2.4 1.2 0.4 4.2 12
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.0 1.8 16.3 22.2 12 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.8 0.3 0.5 1.4 27
Phosphorus g/kg DM 5.8 0.6 4.1 6.9 27
Potassium g/kg DM 8.1 0.9 6.5 9.9 24
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.5 0.4 1.5 3.0 24
Manganese mg/kg DM 38 12 13 53 8
Zinc mg/kg DM 57 16 35 83 12
Copper mg/kg DM 11 6 4 27 12
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 7.5 0.2 7.4 7.8 4
Arginine % protein 3.2 0.3 2.9 3.5 4
Glutamic acid % protein 19.5 0.9 18.7 20.7 4
Glycine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.1 2.6 4
Histidine % protein 3.9 0.3 3.6 4.3 4
Isoleucine % protein 4.3 0.1 4.2 4.4 4
Leucine % protein 10.4 0.3 10.1 10.8 4
Lysine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.8 2.0 4
Phenylalanine % protein 5.0 0.1 4.9 5.1 4
Serine % protein 4.1 0.1 3.9 4.2 4
Threonine % protein 3.4 0.1 3.3 3.5 4
Tyrosine % protein 2.9 0.1 2.8 3.0 4
Valine % protein 5.5 0.1 5.4 5.7 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 83.3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 81.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.4 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.8 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 81.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Buerkert et al., 2001; CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.0 2.6 89.3 94.9 4
Crude protein % DM 21.1 7.0 14.3 27.4 4
Crude fibre % DM 15.3 0.9 14.0 16.2 4
Ether extract % DM 10.8 0.4 10.4 11.3 4
Ash % DM 5.0 3.0 2.4 9.2 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.7 7.3 0.4 15.7 4
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.2 0.6 2.7 4.0 4
Potassium g/kg DM 1.9 0.6 1.3 2.6 4
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 0.7 0.9 2.5 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 64.0 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 66.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:29

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), grain. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/724 Last updated on September 30, 2015, 14:00

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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