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Feedipedia

Whey

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Whey, acid whey, sweet whey, fresh whey

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Whey is a liquid by-product that is remaining after cheese production. Its dry matter content is low around 7 %. Most of the fat and casein has been removed during the cheese making process, but it is high in lactose and minerals. In addition to providing nutrients whey can also be used as a source of water. There are two types of whey fresh and acidified. Fresh whey is fed prior to being allowed to ferment and produce acid. While acid whey is allowed to ferment and produce acids. Fresh whey is quite unstable and needs to be consumed within a short time after it has been produced. Acid whey is more stable, because the acid that has been produced when it has been allowed to ferment will lower the pH and stabilize it. Acid whey is less palatable than fresh whey. Adding various acids, such as, formic acid, hydrochloric acid, etc can also stabilize liquid whey. Dehydrating the whey and drying it can also make whey powder.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Several reviews of whey feeding have been completed (7) (CAB 800460286) (Dingstad, 1980); (8) (CAB 800460533) (Modler, 1980); (17) (AGRIS 91-015173) (Economides, 1990). Liquid whey feeding has been shown to reduce feeding costs (15) (CAB D898087) (Hacker, 1983). Advantages and disadvantages of liquid vs dry whey has been reviewed (1) (CAB 750417314) (Turnbull, 1974). Distant for source and transport cost is the primary factor influencing the economic feasibility of feeding whey (16) (CAB D899903) (Metzler, 1983).

Potential constraints 

Adequate heat treatment (pasteurization) should be applied to assure that all pathogenic organisms have been destroyed.

Ruminants 

Allowing an adaptation time is critical when feeding whey to cattle, as is feeding enough hay to prevent diarrhea (24) (CAB 930463566) (Steinwender, 1993). Whey can be used to partially replace oilseed meals in ewe feeding programs (14) (CAB D940776) (Nesterenko, 1981). Liquid whey feeding to dairy cattle has been shown to provide a viable and economical source of nutrients (13) (CAB D985532) (Petrovskaya, 1983). Feeding of whey to lactating dairy cattle was shown to increase butterfat and protein percentages in the milk (11) (CAB 830483137) (Buchberger, 1982); (24) (CAB 930463566) (Steinwender, 1993). Whey feeding to lactating dairy cattle was shown to decreased butterfat percentage in the milk (2) (CAB 731412774) (Schingoethe, 1973). Milk production and live weight gains were increased when liquid whey was fed (17) (AGRIS 91-015173) (Economides, 1990); (19) (CAB N323940); (20) (CAB N261490) (Herold, 1990). Feeding of whey resulted in similar performance in growing bulls and caused a saving of concentrate and silage (23) (CAB 931465494) (Lehmann, 1993). Cattle can be fed a maximum of 25 to 30 % of their daily DM intake as whey, if adequate amounts of hay is also being fed (22) (CAB 940403516) (Lehmann, 1993); (24) (CAB 930463566) (Steinwender, 1993). Feeding of whey to growing bulls was found to increase % propionic acid and decrease acetic in rumen (4) (AGRIS 86-003273) (Kolat, 1983). Dry whey can replace up to 1/3 of the dried milk in a calf feeding program without decreasing gains and reducing feed conversion (25) (CAB N417880) (Capper, 1992). Feeding of cottage cheese whey to calves increased gains in calves (4) (CAB 750422122) (Hendrix, 1975).

Pigs 

Whey needs to be limited in feeding applications for swine, because of its low DM content and hense low energy content, low protein content with an imbalanced amino acid profile, mineral imbalance and high lactose content (6) (CAB 800465809) (Fevrier, 1979). Ad libitum feeding of liquid whey to young swine was shown not to cause any problems (10) (CAB 79040792) (Brocksoppp, 1979). Lactose utilization and dietary level needs to be considered when feeding whey to swine (5) (CAB 800461085) (Benevenga, 1979). Concentrated whey was shown to be a good feed for young growing swine (12) (CAB 810471012) (Dogurevich, 1981). Feeding of whey can result in intestinal hemorrhage syndrome, caused by rapid fermentation of lactose and high levels of gas production (3) (CAB 772281549) (Todd, 1977); (21) (CAB 942201965) (Hani, 1993). Whey feeding was shown to reduce ascarid egg count in the feces of swine (9) (CAB 800462260) (Alfredsen, 1980).

Poultry 

Dried whey was incorporated into starter (0, 3, 6, 9 %) and finisher (0, 2, 4, 6 %) broiler diets replacing either fish meal, soybean meal or sunflower meal and the best performance was at the 3 % in the starter and 2 % in the finisher incorporation rates (3) (CAB 770432002) (Petkova, 1976). Whey was shown to be able to replace a commercial supplement without causing differences in performance (18) (CAB D306724) (Vieites, 1987).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 97.0 1.2 93.7 98.4 98
Crude protein % DM 12.5 0.9 11.1 15.1 95
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 1.3 0.5 0.6 2.3 28
Ash % DM 8.2 0.5 7.2 9.3 78
Lactose % DM 71.06 2.80 65.90 75.16 18
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.1 1.0 14.3 16.2 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 5.1 0.9 3.7 7.9 29
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.4 0.6 5.3 7.6 36
Potassium g/kg DM 21.0 1
Sodium g/kg DM 7.0 1.1 5.5 9.9 32
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.0 1
Copper mg/kg DM 7 1
Iron mg/kg DM 7 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.3 0.2 3.9 5.0 25
Arginine % protein 2.2 0.3 1.8 2.9 27
Aspartic acid % protein 9.1 0.5 8.1 10.4 26
Cystine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.2 24
Glutamic acid % protein 15.1 0.5 14.1 16.2 26
Glycine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.1 26
Histidine % protein 1.6 0.1 1.5 1.8 19
Isoleucine % protein 5.2 0.3 4.3 5.8 27
Leucine % protein 8.8 0.3 8.1 9.5 27
Lysine % protein 7.6 0.4 6.9 8.2 27
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.2 1.1 2.0 26
Phenylalanine % protein 2.9 0.2 2.7 3.3 27
Proline % protein 5.3 0.3 4.4 5.7 19
Serine % protein 4.4 0.2 4.0 4.8 26
Threonine % protein 5.7 0.4 4.8 6.2 27
Tryptophan % protein 1.5 0.1 1.4 1.6 18
Tyrosine % protein 2.0 0.2 1.6 2.4 18
Valine % protein 5.1 0.3 4.4 5.8 27
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 94.0
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 91.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 73.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 95.0
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.8 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.4 *
 
Fish nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
DE salmonids MJ/kg DM 13.3 12.3 13.4 2 *
Energy digestibility, salmonids % 82.6 71.5 93.7 2
Nitrogen digestibility, salmonids % 84.3 72.5 96.0 2

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Hajen et al., 1993; Paruelle et al., 1973

Last updated on 28/11/2012 22:37:03

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 97.1 1.4 92.6 98.8 273
Crude protein % DM 9.3 1.3 7.4 13.5 267
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 2.2 0.6 1.0 3.4 105
Ash % DM 12.2 0.6 11.1 13.8 274
Lactose % DM 64.42 2.24 60.28 70.70 170
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 15.4 0.5 14.8 15.7 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 18.2 1.2 15.4 20.3 24
Phosphorus g/kg DM 10.7 1.3 7.4 12.8 18
Sodium g/kg DM 7.6 0.7 6.4 9.4 139
Manganese mg/kg DM 1 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 9 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 3.6 0.5 2.6 4.4 10
Arginine % protein 1.7 0.5 0.7 2.4 11
Aspartic acid % protein 7.8 0.9 6.4 9.2 10
Cystine % protein 1.5 0.5 0.7 2.3 11
Glutamic acid % protein 14.6 0.9 13.1 16.2 10
Glycine % protein 1.6 0.2 1.3 1.8 10
Histidine % protein 1.8 0.5 1.5 3.2 11
Isoleucine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.2 5.5 11
Leucine % protein 7.0 1.8 4.2 9.8 11
Lysine % protein 6.8 0.9 5.9 8.3 11
Methionine % protein 1.0 0.2 0.8 1.4 11
Phenylalanine % protein 2.5 0.4 1.6 3.0 11
Proline % protein 5.9 1.2 4.1 7.9 8
Serine % protein 4.0 0.2 3.7 4.5 10
Threonine % protein 5.3 0.7 4.2 6.4 11
Tryptophan % protein 1.2 0.4 0.5 2.1 11
Tyrosine % protein 2.0 0.3 1.6 2.4 9
Valine % protein 4.2 0.6 3.4 5.3 11
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 94.0
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 91.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.8 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 71.2 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 95.0
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.6 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.6 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 12.1 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Dewar, 1967; Guillaume, 1978; Hansen et al., 1993

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:36

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/730 Last updated on October 21, 2011, 0:21

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