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Brown rice

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Brown rice, cargo rice

Synonyms 

Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza sativa var. affinis Körn., Oryza sativa var. erythroceros Körn., Oryza sativa var. flavoacies Kara-Murza ex Zhuk., Oryza sativa subsp. indica Kato., Oryza sativa cv. italica Alef., Oryza sativa subsp. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. melanacra Körn., Oryza sativa var. suberythroceros Kanevsk, Oryza sativa var. vulgaris Körn., Oryza sativa var. zeravschanica Brches ex Katzaroff, nom. nud. (USDA, 2009)

Description 

Brown rice is the dehulled rice that retains the bran coating.

Distribution 

Rice originates from Asia where it is known to have been growing since 6500 BC. It was then brought to all tropical regions within centuries. Rice grows from 53°N in China to 35°S in Australia. The optimal growing conditions are: 20-30°C average day-temperature with night temperature over 15°C; fertile, heavy soils, 6.5-7 pH. Most varieties ("swamp rice", "lowland rice") must be planted in stagnant water and require 200 mm rainfall/month or equivalent amount from irrigation, whereas others ("mountain rice" or "upland rice") require less irrigation and 750 mm rainfall on a 3-4 months period and no dessication.

Environmental impact 

Irrigated rice causes anaerobic fermentation in the soil, subsequently producing high amounts of CH4 (6 to 29% of the total amount of anthropogenic CH4 emissions) one of the most important greenhouse gases (Neue et al., 1993). Lodging also causes acidification and increases salinity. Water specific demand for rice is ranging from 2000 to 3000 l/kg which is slightly higher than other crops like legumes or wheat (Hoekstra, 2003).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

It is sometimes used as feed. Usually ground and sold as "rice meal", it can be fed to all types of animals.

It is superior to rough rice as it contains less fibre and silica, and it is richer in protein and vitamins than polished rice.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.6 2.4 85.4 94.2 23
Crude protein % DM 10.5 2.1 7.5 14.3 61
Crude fibre % DM 2.0 2.7 0.3 10.5 37
NDF % DM 3.1 4.2 0.4 9.3 4
ADF % DM 1.6 1.8 0.6 4.4 4
Lignin % DM 2.0 1
Ether extract % DM 2.2 0.9 0.3 3.3 52
Ash % DM 1.7 1.4 0.4 7.0 38
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 86.9 2.2 83.2 91.6 12
Total sugars % DM 0.4 0.3 0.1 0.9 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.2 0.2 17.7 18.3 5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.9 11
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6 0.8 1.3 3.8 12
Potassium g/kg DM 3.0 0.9 1.3 3.7 8
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 0.1 0.3 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 0.2 0.7 1.4 8
Manganese mg/kg DM 60 44 29 110 3
Zinc mg/kg DM 22 4 18 26 3
Copper mg/kg DM 8 5 10 2
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.6 0.3 5.2 6.1 17
Arginine % protein 7.8 0.8 5.8 8.5 18
Aspartic acid % protein 8.8 0.6 8.1 10.1 17
Cystine % protein 1.6 0.6 0.9 2.4 17
Glutamic acid % protein 17.3 1.6 15.1 20.8 17
Glycine % protein 4.5 0.3 4.1 5.0 18
Histidine % protein 2.2 0.1 2.0 2.4 18
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 0.7 3.8 6.1 18
Leucine % protein 7.7 0.4 6.9 8.1 18
Lysine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.2 4.1 22
Methionine % protein 2.4 0.3 2.1 3.0 18
Phenylalanine % protein 5.0 0.3 4.4 5.5 18
Proline % protein 4.5 0.3 4.0 5.4 17
Serine % protein 4.9 0.4 4.1 5.4 17
Threonine % protein 3.5 0.3 2.9 4.2 18
Tryptophan % protein 1.9 0.9 1.2 4.0 15
Tyrosine % protein 4.4 0.7 3.1 5.3 18
Valine % protein 5.7 0.3 5.1 6.2 18
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 89.5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 68.5 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 95.5 0.6 95.5 97.0 4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.4 0.2 17.1 17.5 4 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.0 0.2 16.8 17.3 4 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 87.7 3.0 82.0 89.0 4 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 16.8 *
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 89.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Dewar, 1967; Fekete et al., 1986; Han et al., 1976; Hirohata et al., 1959; Juliano et al., 1964; Lekule et al., 1990; Mossé et al., 1988; Nadeem et al., 2005; Ravindran et al., 1994; Yamazaki et al., 1986

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:55

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/747 Last updated on April 23, 2015, 12:32

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