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Malt culms

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

malt culms

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Malt culms are the dried shoots and rootlets of sprouted grain in the brewing process.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

The fibres of malt culms, being highly digestible, are a useful feed. Their value is greater for ruminants than for monogastric animals because only about half of the crude protein is digestible true protein. The quality of malt culms is variable; only those in good condition, free from mould and off-flavours, should be used. Malt culms are bitter and are sometimes refused if fed alone.

Ruminants 

As dried malt culms swell in the stomach, the amount fed daily should be limited to 1.5 kg for cattle. They can affect the taste of milk if large amounts are given to dairy cattle.

Pigs 

It has been used in the rations of growing-finishing pigs up to a level of 16% of the total diet with good results.

Rabbits 

Barley rootlets and sprout

Barley rootlets or sprouts are considered as classical ingredients in the constitution of commercial or experimental rabbit diets in Europe, as source of proteins (21-25% DM) and digestible fibre ( Garcia et al,., 1996; Chrenkova et al., 2012). The most frequent level of inclusion is 3 to 5% in the complete diets for growing rabbits as for reproducing does (de Blas et al., 1995; Nicodemus et al., 2002; Rebollar et al., 2011). One of the side interest of the presence of barley rootlets in pelleted diets is the improvement of pellets quality (durability) with an efficiency similar to that of beet pulp (Israelsen et al. 1981, cited by Kaliyan , 2009).

In the studies on the possibilities for higher incorporations levels , barley rootlets were introduced up to 30% in complete growing rabbit diets without any inconvenient for growth rate, health of rabbits or meat quality (Bagliacca et al., 1987; El-Gendry et al., 2000). The slight alteration of performances with 45% barley rootlets in the diet should be attributed more to the imbalance of the diet than to a specific toxicity problem. Effectively proteins of the barley rootlets are deficient in lysine (85-88% of requirement) and their introduction at high level in order to reduce the incorporation level of soybean meal, induces a lysine deficiency increasing with the incorporation level.

Nevertheless, barley rootlets should not be introduced without precaution because if the high risk of presence of mycotoxins in some commercial samples of this product, particularly fumonisin and ochratoxin A (Rosa et al., 2008; Cavaglieri et al., 2009) . These 2 mycotoxins were clearly identified as source of teratogenic, nephrotoxic and hepatotoxic problems in the rabbit (Mezes et al., 2009). More positively it should be noticed that the addition of barley rootlets in rabbit diets reduced the plasma cholesterol  (El-Husseiny et al., 1997) and consequently that of rabbit meat.

Sorghum rootlets and sprouts

The relatively recent production of "beer" based on malted sorghum instead of malted barley  in different countries such Nigeria, makes by-products of sorghum malt production available for animal feeding. The malted sorghum sprout ( MSP) commercialised corresponds a mix of dried roots and shoots (Jegede et al., 2006). In a study with growing rabbit malted sorghum sprout was introduced up to 30% of the diet. Best results of growth rate were obtained with 20% of MSP , close to those obtained for the control diets, and feed conversion ratio was improved : 3.30 vs 3.43 for the control (Jegede et al., 2006). In a second similar study, the same research staff (Jegede et al., 2008) had again observed a slight but significant reduction of the growth rate with the incorporation of malt sorghum sprout up to 30%. But as in the first study, the incorporation of MSP was associated with a marked reduction of soybean meal and wheat offal without corrections for the diet's amino acids content, then creating a simultaneous lysine and sulphur amino acids deficiency, because of the low content of MSP in these 2 essential amino acids (Aning et al., 1998). The consequence of this amino acids imbalance is amplified in the case of MSP introduction because this by-product may contain appreciable levels of residual  cyanogenic compounds (Panasiuk et al., 1984), and it is known that their detoxification needs appreciable extra quantities of lysine and methionine (Oziba et al., 1994).

Horses and donkeys 

The amount fed daily should be limited to 2.5 kg for horses.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.9 1.9 86.0 94.9 812
Crude protein % DM 23.5 3.0 17.3 30.7 804
Crude fibre % DM 13.5 1.7 9.7 17.3 777
NDF % DM 45.2 4.7 38.8 52.4 33
ADF % DM 16.7 1.8 13.8 19.5 33
Lignin % DM 1.7 0.4 1.0 2.7 51
Ether extract % DM 1.7 0.2 1.2 2.3 380
Ash % DM 6.0 0.7 4.3 7.6 614
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 14.7 5.3 6.0 28.1 345
Total sugars % DM 10.9 2.2 7.6 16.5 35
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4 0.4 18.2 19.6 12 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.4 0.7 1.3 4.0 41
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.1 0.8 4.8 7.5 58
Potassium g/kg DM 17.5 3.1 15.0 21.9 5
Sodium g/kg DM 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.6 34
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.0 0.4 1.6 2.6 5
Manganese mg/kg DM 80 22 62 119 6
Zinc mg/kg DM 108 14 88 130 6
Copper mg/kg DM 14 3 11 18 6
Iron mg/kg DM 558 210 311 824 6
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.5 0.2 4.1 4.7 5
Arginine % protein 4.1 0.3 3.6 4.3 6
Aspartic acid % protein 10.5 1.1 9.4 12.1 5
Cystine % protein 1.3 0.1 1.2 1.5 7
Glutamic acid % protein 9.6 0.8 8.8 10.4 5
Glycine % protein 3.7 0.2 3.4 3.9 5
Histidine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.8 2.2 6
Isoleucine % protein 3.3 0.3 3.1 3.8 6
Leucine % protein 5.2 0.4 4.6 5.7 7
Lysine % protein 4.6 0.4 4.0 5.3 9
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.1 1.1 1.6 8
Phenylalanine % protein 3.1 0.2 2.8 3.3 6
Proline % protein 5.4 0.9 4.7 6.9 5
Serine % protein 3.1 0.1 2.9 3.3 5
Threonine % protein 3.3 0.2 3.0 3.5 7
Tryptophan % protein 1.2 0.9 1.4 2
Tyrosine % protein 2.2 0.2 1.9 2.3 5
Valine % protein 4.5 0.3 4.2 5.0 6
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 67.4 64.5 79.5 2 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 65.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 70.2 *
a (N) % 42.8 1
b (N) % 44.7 1
c (N) h-1 0.050 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 68 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 63 8 63 79 4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 61.0 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.4 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 74.5 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 6.6 1.0 5.7 8.5 6

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; AFZ, 2011; Campbell et al., 1983; De Boever et al., 1988; De Boever et al., 1994; Fialho et al., 1995; Hewitt, 1953; Kiiskinen, 1992; Lyman et al., 1956; Pereira et al., 1999; Swain et al., 1994; Woods et al., 2003

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:44

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/75 Last updated on June 25, 2015, 14:22

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