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Rice bran and other rice by-products

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Rice bran, full-fat rice bran, defatted rice bran, de-oiled rice bran, rice pollards, rice polishings, rice mill feed

Synonyms 

Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza sativa var. affinis Körn., Oryza sativa var. erythroceros Körn., Oryza sativa var. flavoacies Kara-Murza ex Zhuk., Oryza sativa subsp. indica Kato., Oryza sativa cv. italica Alef., Oryza sativa subsp. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. melanacra Körn., Oryza sativa var. suberythroceros Kanevsk, Oryza sativa var. vulgaris Körn., Oryza sativa var. zeravschanica Brches ex Katzaroff, nom. nud. (USDA, 2009)

Description 

Rice bran is the most important rice by-product. The bran fraction contains 14-18% oil. Rice bran that has not been defatted is a useful binder in mixed feeds. Defatted rice bran can be used at higher levels than ordinary rice bran. Rice bran is often adulterated with rice hulls, as it should have a crude fibre content of 10-15% (Göhl, 1982).

Manufacturing and products

After threshing, the rough rice is transported to mills for processing into white rice (polished rice) through a series of operations that free it from the hull, germ and bran. In many countries the processing of rice for local use is still carried out in one-stage mills. The by-product of this simplest form of processing is a mixture of hulls and bran that seldom reaches the market as it is usually returned to the rice grower.

In large-scale mills the rough rice undergoes several processes: cleaning, parboiling, hulling, pearling, polishing and grading. The cleaning process removes all extraneous matter, such as "dead" grains, stones and stalks. For certain varieties it is necessary to parboil (steep) the cleaned rice in hot water for a time to facilitate removal of the hull and improve the keeping quality of the grain. This process also improves the thiamine content of the grain.

There are several methods of removing the hull. After hulling, the germ and outer bran are removed in a set of huller reels and pearling cones in which the waxy cuticle is scoured off by the friction between the high-speed abrasive cone and its casing. The resultant bran meal is propelled through meshes of wirecloth and collected. The milling space between the cone and the casing is adjustable so that the milling rate can be varied by raising or lowering the cone. In most mills the rice passes through several cones, each with a higher milling rate. The bran from the different settings is usually mixed into one product. For a finer appearance, rice from the pearler is passed through polishers. These machines are similar to pearling cones except that they contain a drum covered with strops of hide rather than an abrasive cone. In this process a part of the starchy kernel (endosperm) is removed. If inner bran layers are included, the product is called fine bran, or pollard. The mixture of whole and broken rice from the polishers is separated in sieves and then remixed in proportions corresponding to the standard at which the rice is to be sold.

The percentage of by-products depends on milling rate, type of rice and other factors. The following figures give an approximate idea of the proportions: hulls, 20%; bran, 10%; polishings, 3%; broken rice, 1-17%; polished rice, 50-66%. Rice pollards are a mixture of bran and polishings. Rice mill feed, a mixture of all the by-products obtained in the milling of rice, contains approximately 60% hulls; 35% bran and 5% polishings. The offal obtained from one-stage mills is of similar composition and is often erroneously called "rice bran". Production of rice mill feed in multi-stage mills is somewhat cheaper than separate production of the ingredients.

Distribution 

Rice by-products are available worldwide.

Environmental impact 

Irrigated rice causes anaerobic fermentation in the soil, subsequently producing large amounts of CH4 (from 6 to 29% of the total amount of anthropogenic CH4 emissions), one of the most important greenhouse gases (Neue, 1993). Lodging also causes acidification and increases salinity. Specific water demand for rice ranges from 2000 to 3000 l/kg which is slightly higher than other crops such as legumes or wheat (Hoekstra, 2003).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Rice bran is a good source of B vitamins and is fairly palatable to farm animals. The oil has a marked softening effect on body fat and on the butterfat in milk. With attention to the oil content, rice bran is a valuable feed for all classes of livestock. Rice pollards are used in the same way and with the same limitations as rice bran. It should be noted that rice milling by-products do not follow strict naming conventions. Many products called "rice brans" are mixtures of by-products obtained at different stages of the milling process, resulting in large variations in chemical composition.

Potential constraints 

The oil in full-fat rice bran can become rancid during storage due to the presence of a lipolytic enzyme that becomes active when the bran is separated from the rice. Rancidity rapidly increases the free fatty acid content. The free fatty acid content of bran from parboiled rice is below 3% immediately after milling but increases at the rate of about 1% per hour. Apart from extraction of the oils, the rancidity process can be delayed by heating or drying immediately after milling. Heating to 100°C for four or five minutes with live steam is sufficient to retard the increase in free fatty acids. The rice bran can also be heated dry if spread out on trays at 200°C for ten minutes. The same effect can be obtained by reducing the moisture content to below 4%. Most chemical inhibitors are ineffective (Göhl, 1982).

Ruminants 

Cattle

Full-fat rice bran

In dairy cows, full-fat rice bran has been recommended as a source of fat (Nornberg et al., 2004). However, beef cattle and finishing cows supplemented with full-fat rice bran do not perform as well as animals supplemented with maize, soybean hulls or wheat bran (Gadberry et al., 2007; Osmari et al., 2008).

Heifers fed maize or soybeans hulls as energy-based supplements gained more body weight than heifers fed rice bran, but this product had no effect on calf birth and weaning body weight (Sanson et al., 2003).

In steers, full-fat rice bran has proved to increase DM intake when supplementing hay-based diets, green forage-based diets or sugarcane bagasse-based diets (Pal et al., 2004; Toburan et al., 1990; Alvarez et al., 1978). However, at low inclusion levels it had no effect on carcass yield or carcass weight (Goncalves et al., 2007).

Defatted rice bran

In dairy cows, a mixture of defatted rice bran and molasses sustained the same milk yield as maize concentrate (Chaudhary et al., 2001).

Defatted rice, fed as a supplement to grazing cows or cows fed on hay-based diets, improved hay DM digestibility, hay NDF digestibility and total diet DM digestibility. The cows increased their body weight, milk yield and milk fat content (Gadberry et al., 2006; Buaphan et al., 2006).

However, when defatted rice bran was compared to other brans, such as maize bran or wheat bran, it gave the poorest results: lowest milk yield and lowest digestible OM intake (Gadberry et al., 2006; Tahir et al., 2002; Singh et al., 2000).

Defatted rice bran increased energy intake and fibre digestibility in steers (Zhao et al., 1996), suggesting that fat content is detrimental to NDF digestibility (Gadberry et al., 2007). Calves supplemented with defatted rice bran gained more body weight than non-supplemented calves. In other studies, defatted rice bran gave similar body weight gain to wheat middlings but lower than those obtained with maize or full-fat rice bran (Gadberry et al., 2007).

Sheep

In sheep, supplementing basal diets with full-fat rice bran seems to have positive effects. However, recommended inclusion levels vary from less than 20% to more than 40% depending on the basal diet (Nega et al., 2009; Tabeidian et al., 2009; Salinas-Chavira et al., 2008; Orden et al., 2000a; Orden et al., 2000b; Rivero et al., 2004).

Goats

In lactating goats, substitution of wheat bran with rice polishings (25%) reduced the feed cost of goat rations (Dutta et al., 2006).

Pigs 
Full-fat rice bran

Because of its interesting chemical composition and particularly high lysine and methionine content, full-fat rice bran is often used as a basal diet in pigs (Chiv Phiny et al., 2008; Thim Sokha et al., 2008; Chhay Ty et al., 2007a; Chhay Ty et al., 2007b; Malavanh et al., 2006; Chhay Ty et al., 2006; Keoboualapheth et al., 2003; Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001).

Adding enzymes to rice bran may enhance ileac digestibility of non-starch polysaccharides (Yin et al., 2004). Additional Zn was useful at 60% rice bran inclusion to prevent parakeratosis (Bauza et al., 1990). On the contrary, feeding rice bran with phytase lowered the need for P supplementation in maize-soybean meal-based diet (Nicolaiewsky et al., 1989).

Recommended inclusion levels of full-fat rice bran range from 22% to 60% depending on the treatment as shown in the following table.

Recommended inclusion levels of full-fat rice bran in pig diets:

Method Inclusion level Results Reference
Cooking, extruding 22-23% Improved digestible energy and digestible DM Tangendjaja et al., 1988
None 24 or 32% P supplementation unnecessary Nicolaiewsky et al., 1989
Mixed with maize 38% Positive effect on poly unsaturated fatty acids Campos et al., 2006
None 41% Lower FCR, good animal performances, no effects on piglets from gilts fed 41% rice bran Soren et al., 2004; Thirumurugan et al., 2008
Phytase or not 50% Lower feed cost Fireman et al., 2000
Zn supplementation 60% Lower FCR Conci et al., 1995 ; Bauza et al., 1990
Defatted rice bran

Pigs can also be fed on defatted rice bran even though it impairs feed conversion ratio (Kanto et al., 2006). This effect may be alleviated by adding enzyme: phytase supplementation allowed P withdrawal (Ludke et al., 2002; Moreira et al., 2003) and decreased feed costs (Kanto et al., 2006). Feeding pigs with carbonized rice bran suppressed volatile fatty acids and sulphur compounds in the manure, thus reducing odours (Saito et al., 2003).

Poultry 

The variability of rice bran, and in particular its fibre content, has a very high effect on its nutritional value for poultry (Widyobroto, 1989). Rice bran has high lysine and methionine contents (Tsvetanov et al., 1990) and good Mn availability (65%) (Fialho et al., 1993; Halpin et al., 1986). Nevertheless, its phytate content, enzyme inhibitor, high fibre content and oxidative rancidity may have deleterious effects on poultry.

Broilers

Full-fat rice bran

In broilers rice bran may become rancid and decrease growth and lipid stability of meat (Chae et al., 2002). It is suggested that it be included at relatively low levels (up to 15% only) in broilers diets (Vieira et al., 2007; Shin et al., 2004; Gallinger et al., 2004; Asit Das et al., 2000). Higher levels may result in low calcification (Aruna Tomar et al., 1999). Decreased feed intake and increased mortality can occur with above 80% inclusion (Carrion et al., 1989). In order to alleviate the adverse effects of phytates, enzyme inhibitor and oxidative rancidity as well as high fibre content, enzymes such as phytase, xylanase or lipase may be added to rice bran, making it possible to include higher levels of rice bran in broiler diets and resulting in better animal performance.

Technological treatments can modify the nutritional value of rice bran for broilers. Heating decreased nutritional value (Vali et al., 1989) but extrusion cooking made rice bran inclusion possible at 20% (Mujahid et al., 2003). Combinations of rice bran with other feeds may be beneficial to broilers: 10% rice bran + 5% palm oil gave results comparable to commercial concentrates (Ibiyo et al., 2005). Rice bran and peanut meal mixtures gave higher gross margins than maize-soybean meal diets (Khalil et al., 1997). Rumen liquor may also be added to rice bran in order to solubilise P contained in phytates (Pujaningsih, 2004), making a decreased P supplementation possible. Even if rice bran does not compare favourably with maize (Gupta et al., 1988; Kratzer et al., 1974), it can replace up to 25% maize in diets and be economically efficient (El-Full et al., 2000).

The following table summarizes the recommendations found in the literature.

Recommended inclusion levels of full-fat rice bran in broiler diets:

Inclusion level Enzyme Result Reference
15% Phytase Higher animal performances El-Deeb et al., 2000
15% None Higher feed intake and liveweight gain Conte et al., 2003
Unknown Phytase Higher weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio Teichmann et al., 1998
20% Xylanase at 400 FTU/kg Higher animal performances Schoulten et al., 2003
20% Lipase Higher growth response Martin et al., 1998
30% Xylanase Higher apparent metabolizable energy Mulyantini et al., 2005
30% Phytase + phospholipase Enhanced feed conversion ratio Attia et al., 2003
Defatted rice bran

Defatted rice bran can be fed to broilers at 15% to 20% (Kim et al., 2003; Butala et al., 1994). Adding phytase or bile salts to defatted rice bran enhanced chick performances with results comparable to commercial diets (Adrizal et al., 2002; Munaro et al., 1996).

Laying hens

Full-fat rice bran

Recommended inclusion levels for full-fat rice bran in laying hen diets range from 7.5% to 40% (Nobakht, 2007; Filardi et al., 2007; Rezaei, 2006; Saml et al., 2006; Popescu et al., 2003; El-Full et al., 2000; Huezo et al., 1999) but best animal performance, FCR (feed conversion ratio) and economic results seem to be achieved below 10% inclusion (Filardi et al., 2007; Rezaei, 2006; Popescu et al., 2003).

Defatted rice bran

Feeding laying hens with defatted rice bran decreased cholesterol in egg yolk (Sharara et al., 2003). It also decreased egg specific gravity, egg shell Ca and egg shell weight. Adding phytase alleviates those effects (Fireman et al., 1997)

Rabbits 

Rice bran can be used to feed rabbits. Inclusion levels range from 5% in young rabbits (Bhatt et al., 2005) to 60% (Raharjo et al., 1988a) depending on treatment or supplementation.

Horses and donkeys 

In Australia, rice pollards have been widely used, for many years, in high energy horse feeds. Digestible energy values of 14.3-15.5 MJ/kg DM have been found (Hutton, 1990).

Fish 

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Rice bran is one of the main ingredients used by tilapia farmers in Subsaharan Africa (El-Sayed, 2013). In Kenya, a comparison of maize bran, rice bran and wheat bran fed to tilapia at 1.5% body weight showed that rice bran gave lower performance and was less profitable than wheat bran and maize bran (Liti et al., 2006).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.0 1.3 87.2 91.9 20
Crude protein % DM 14.2 1.6 11.6 17.0 19
Crude fibre % DM 4.1 0.7 2.8 5.3 18
NDF % DM 12.4 10.7 14.2 2
ADF % DM 3.2 1.7 4.6 2
Lignin % DM 1.2 0.7 1.8 2
Ether extract % DM 13.2 1.6 10.7 16.6 17
Ash % DM 6.9 0.8 5.2 8.0 18
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 42.0 8.2 29.2 50.3 7
Total sugars % DM 3.8 1.8 5.7 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.5 20.5 22.8 2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.6 0.9 0.2 4.2 18
Phosphorus g/kg DM 13.9 3.1 7.8 22.5 18
Potassium g/kg DM 10.8 1.8 7.7 14.6 15
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.1 0.8 4.8 8.0 15
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.9 0.1 5.8 6.0 3
Arginine % protein 7.7 1.2 6.9 9.1 3
Aspartic acid % protein 7.9 1.8 5.9 9.1 3
Cystine % protein 1.1 0.2 0.9 1.3 3
Glutamic acid % protein 13.5 0.5 13.1 14.0 3
Glycine % protein 4.9 0.2 4.6 5.0 3
Histidine % protein 2.6 0.4 2.2 2.9 3
Isoleucine % protein 5.8 0.3 5.6 6.2 3
Leucine % protein 6.7 0.1 6.6 6.7 3
Lysine % protein 4.5 0.5 4.0 4.9 3
Methionine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.0 2.5 3
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 0.5 4.2 5.1 3
Proline % protein 4.7 1.4 3.1 5.8 3
Serine % protein 4.3 0.5 3.8 4.8 3
Threonine % protein 3.3 0.1 3.2 3.4 3
Tryptophan % protein 2.0 0.3 1.7 2.2 3
Tyrosine % protein 4.1 0.3 3.9 4.5 3
Valine % protein 5.4 0.2 5.2 5.6 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 94.4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 92.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 19.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.8 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 75.8 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 83.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.7 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:24

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.1 1.4 87.2 93.1 358
Crude protein % DM 14.8 1.5 11.5 18.3 380
Crude fibre % DM 8.6 1.8 5.6 12.2 301
NDF % DM 25.2 3.1 16.1 29.6 90 *
ADF % DM 11.2 1.9 6.6 15.2 89 *
Lignin % DM 4.1 0.9 2.3 6.0 89 *
Ether extract % DM 17.2 2.6 11.3 21.9 318
Ash % DM 9.4 1.6 6.5 14.0 350
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 28.8 7.3 15.9 43.4 133
Total sugars % DM 2.8 2.2 0.0 6.5 12
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.2 2.0 19.2 25.6 14 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.7 0.4 0.2 2.9 206
Phosphorus g/kg DM 17.0 3.1 8.6 22.2 207
Potassium g/kg DM 14.9 2.4 9.8 19.3 155
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.9 23
Magnesium g/kg DM 7.8 1.4 5.2 11.4 160
Manganese mg/kg DM 211 45 137 347 29
Zinc mg/kg DM 63 13 46 91 35
Copper mg/kg DM 8 3 3 17 28
Iron mg/kg DM 106 25 48 143 20
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.4 0.4 5.8 7.2 20
Arginine % protein 6.6 1.6 4.0 8.7 20
Aspartic acid % protein 9.0 0.9 6.8 10.2 20
Cystine % protein 1.2 0.2 0.9 1.5 20
Glutamic acid % protein 13.0 1.0 11.3 14.6 20
Glycine % protein 5.3 0.3 4.8 5.9 20
Histidine % protein 2.6 0.3 2.1 3.1 20
Isoleucine % protein 5.9 0.4 5.1 6.6 20
Leucine % protein 6.7 0.4 6.1 7.5 20
Lysine % protein 4.7 0.4 3.8 5.3 23
Methionine % protein 2.2 0.2 1.9 2.6 21
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 0.3 3.9 5.1 20
Proline % protein 5.3 0.5 4.6 6.7 20
Serine % protein 4.6 0.5 3.3 5.3 20
Threonine % protein 3.8 0.3 3.2 4.3 20
Tryptophan % protein 1.8 0.4 1.2 2.7 19
Tyrosine % protein 3.7 0.4 3.2 4.6 20
Valine % protein 5.5 0.4 4.8 6.2 20
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 76.9 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 75.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 68.0 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 62 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 76.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.6 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 79.5 1
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 12.7 1.9 10.6 14.3 3
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 57.4 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 12.1 1
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 11.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Arosemena et al., 1995; Belyea et al., 1989; Castaing et al., 1995; CIRAD, 1991; CIRAD, 1994; Cirad, 2008; De Boever et al., 1988; De Boever et al., 1994; DePeters et al., 1997; DePeters et al., 2000; Fekete et al., 1986; Forster et al., 1994; Friesecke, 1970; Holm, 1971; Jongbloed et al., 1990; Karunajeewa et al., 1984; Le Duc Ngoan et al., 2001; Le Thi Men et al., 2006; Loosli et al., 1954; Maertens et al., 1985; Morse et al., 1992; Naik, 1967; Nguyen Nhut Xuan Dung et al., 2003; Nguyen Van Hao et al., 2001; Orden et al., 2000; Pozy et al., 1996; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Ravindran et al., 1994; Robles et al., 1982; Smolders et al., 1990; Tamminga et al., 1990; Warren et al., 1990; Zombade et al., 1983

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 90.2 1.4 88.4 93.2 71
Crude protein % DM 12.7 1.9 9.2 16.5 77
Crude fibre % DM 16.3 2.8 11.2 20.5 70
NDF % DM 34.4 4.0 28.7 43.7 27 *
ADF % DM 19.6 3.8 13.9 25.4 28 *
Lignin % DM 6.8 1.1 5.3 9.1 17 *
Ether extract % DM 14.4 3.3 10.1 21.2 61
Ash % DM 12.4 2.3 8.0 17.4 72
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 22.4 6.7 12.1 33.7 19
Total sugars % DM 2.8 1.8 0.4 4.6 10
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.2 2.9 14.2 26.6 17 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.7 0.3 0.4 1.5 48
Phosphorus g/kg DM 13.8 2.9 9.2 21.6 48
Potassium g/kg DM 12.3 1.4 10.1 15.5 24
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.5 1.7 4.3 11.3 25
Manganese mg/kg DM 138 6 127 143 6
Zinc mg/kg DM 55 6 47 65 6
Copper mg/kg DM 9 1 8 10 6
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.8 0.4 5.2 6.4 5
Arginine % protein 7.2 1.2 5.2 8.0 5
Aspartic acid % protein 9.3 1.1 8.2 10.4 4
Cystine % protein 1.7 0.5 1.1 2.1 4
Glutamic acid % protein 12.7 0.7 11.9 13.3 3
Glycine % protein 5.2 0.8 4.3 6.4 5
Histidine % protein 2.4 0.4 2.0 3.1 5
Isoleucine % protein 5.3 0.8 4.1 5.8 4
Leucine % protein 7.0 0.9 6.3 8.2 4
Lysine % protein 4.4 0.4 3.8 4.9 5
Methionine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.0 4
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 0.1 4.3 4.6 5
Proline % protein 4.6 0.5 3.9 5.0 4
Serine % protein 4.0 0.5 3.3 4.7 5
Threonine % protein 3.7 0.3 3.2 4.1 5
Tryptophan % protein 2.2 0.2 2.0 2.4 3
Tyrosine % protein 3.4 0.7 2.3 4.2 5
Valine % protein 5.4 0.4 5.1 6.1 5
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 63.8 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 61.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 59.9 *
a (N) % 25.0 1
b (N) % 67.4 1
c (N) h-1 0.050 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 62 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 56 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 64.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.0 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.5 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 68.9 1
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 10.6 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 10.3 1.9 9.3 12.7 3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Chanjula et al., 2003; Chiv Phiny et al., 2008; CIRAD, 1991; CIRAD, 1994; Cirad, 2008; Donkoh et al., 2009; Huque et al., 1995; Kawamoto et al., 2001; Laining et al., 2004; Loosli et al., 1954; Lowilai et al., 1995; Pozy et al., 1996; Rajaguru et al., 1985; Rivero et al., 2004; Waters et al., 1992; Yin et al., 1993; Zombade et al., 1983

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.7 2.0 88.9 96.4 17
Crude protein % DM 8.8 2.6 4.3 12.8 18
Crude fibre % DM 28.3 5.6 20.3 41.3 15
NDF % DM 48.7 *
ADF % DM 32.7 *
Lignin % DM 11.0 *
Ether extract % DM 10.3 3.4 4.8 13.6 5
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 11.1 2.3 9.5 13.8 3
Ash % DM 13.6 4.3 3.5 20.3 14
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 14.7 3.5 7.7 17.9 6
Total sugars % DM 1.0 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 4.7 7.5 0.9 21.5 7
Phosphorus g/kg DM 7.4 3.4 3.9 12.5 7
Potassium g/kg DM 6.3 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.1 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 46.4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 42.6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 39.6 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 45.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.8 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.3 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 5.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Chhay Ty et al., 2006; Chhay Ty et al., 2007; Chhay Ty et al., 2007; Cirad, 2008; Keoboualapheth et al., 2003; Onwuka et al., 1997; Pozy et al., 1996; Thim Sokha et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.7 1.2 87.1 92.3 187
Crude protein % DM 16.0 1.7 11.2 18.8 180
Crude fibre % DM 9.8 1.5 4.6 12.0 183
NDF % DM 26.6 6.2 21.6 43.7 19 *
ADF % DM 12.5 4.7 7.0 28.5 18 *
Lignin % DM 4.5 0.6 3.4 5.4 20 *
Ether extract % DM 4.1 1.6 1.6 8.6 136
Ash % DM 12.3 2.7 4.8 16.8 151
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 32.2 2.5 25.7 36.9 136
Total sugars % DM 2.7 2.0 0.4 5.5 6
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9 2.4 17.3 23.5 5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.8 0.5 0.3 2.5 36
Phosphorus g/kg DM 12.1 5.3 3.8 23.1 38
Potassium g/kg DM 8.5 2.1 3.8 13.4 24
Sodium g/kg DM 0.6 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.6 1.3 1.9 8.1 24
Manganese mg/kg DM 221 147 296 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 80 78 81 2
Copper mg/kg DM 14 12 16 2
Iron mg/kg DM 297 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.0 0.4 5.5 6.6 7
Arginine % protein 7.0 1.9 3.6 8.5 6
Aspartic acid % protein 8.7 0.9 7.8 10.2 7
Cystine % protein 1.7 0.6 0.9 2.5 6
Glutamic acid % protein 15.5 2.1 12.3 19.0 7
Glycine % protein 5.1 0.9 3.5 6.4 7
Histidine % protein 2.5 0.4 1.9 3.0 7
Isoleucine % protein 4.8 1.3 3.5 6.3 6
Leucine % protein 7.2 0.6 6.7 8.5 8
Lysine % protein 4.4 0.8 3.4 5.9 8
Methionine % protein 2.4 0.3 1.8 2.8 8
Phenylalanine % protein 4.9 0.6 4.2 6.1 7
Proline % protein 5.1 1.1 4.0 6.8 6
Serine % protein 4.8 0.4 4.4 5.6 7
Threonine % protein 3.6 0.3 3.0 4.1 8
Tryptophan % protein 1.9 0.7 1.1 2.9 7
Tyrosine % protein 4.6 0.8 3.4 5.5 5
Valine % protein 5.7 0.4 5.2 6.5 7
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 82.5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 78.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 72.7 *
a (N) % 73.3 1
b (N) % 22.5 1
c (N) h-1 0.061 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 87 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 85 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 74.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.4 10.4 13.4 2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.7 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 62.7 57.7 67.8 2
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 9.9 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 9.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abdekalam, 1975; AFZ, 2011; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Devendra et al., 1970; Du Thanh Hang et al., 2009; Fialho et al., 1995; Forster et al., 1994; Furuya et al., 1988; Han et al., 1976; Lechevestrier, 1992; Marcondes et al., 2009; Mariscal Landin, 1992; Noblet, 2001; Ohlde et al., 1982; Rao et al., 2000; Sunvold et al., 1995

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.0 0.9 87.1 90.7 158
Crude protein % DM 17.1 0.7 15.1 18.4 157
Crude fibre % DM 14.8 1.2 12.7 17.9 150
NDF % DM 32.6 5.4 27.7 47.4 19 *
ADF % DM 18.0 3.4 12.5 24.3 19 *
Lignin % DM 6.3 1.2 4.1 7.9 18 *
Ether extract % DM 1.0 0.6 0.4 3.5 127
Ash % DM 14.2 0.9 11.9 15.6 107
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 26.4 1.8 22.4 30.4 123
Total sugars % DM 3.0 1.5 1.2 5.3 9
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 1.6 15.9 22.7 14 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.5 1.6 0.7 5.6 17
Phosphorus g/kg DM 19.2 2.8 12.1 23.3 40
Potassium g/kg DM 7.4 7.7 1.2 18.3 10
Sodium g/kg DM 0.4 0.1 0.6 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.4 4.1 0.7 11.4 11
Manganese mg/kg DM 164 43 116 243 7
Zinc mg/kg DM 80 17 55 105 7
Copper mg/kg DM 13 4 10 20 6
Iron mg/kg DM 2556 979 1597 3859 5
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.7 0.6 4.3 6.3 8
Arginine % protein 6.2 2.3 1.1 7.2 7
Aspartic acid % protein 8.8 1.0 6.5 9.7 8
Cystine % protein 1.7 0.3 1.2 2.2 10
Glutamic acid % protein 12.6 1.9 10.5 17.1 8
Glycine % protein 5.0 0.5 4.2 5.5 9
Histidine % protein 2.3 0.4 1.7 2.8 9
Isoleucine % protein 4.2 0.9 3.3 6.3 9
Leucine % protein 7.0 0.8 5.3 7.9 9
Lysine % protein 3.9 0.5 2.7 4.4 10
Methionine % protein 1.9 0.2 1.6 2.3 10
Phenylalanine % protein 4.7 0.5 3.6 5.2 9
Proline % protein 5.6 2.2 4.2 8.1 3
Serine % protein 4.5 0.6 3.3 5.1 8
Threonine % protein 3.9 0.4 3.1 4.3 9
Tryptophan % protein 2.1 1.1 3.1 2
Tyrosine % protein 3.2 0.4 2.4 3.7 9
Valine % protein 5.3 0.6 4.1 6.0 9
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 75.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 70.2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.0 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 71.0 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 66.8 10.8 53.2 72.0 3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.4 1.5 9.0 11.8 3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.8 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.3 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 55.6 1.6 54.2 57.4 3
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 7.8 0.6 6.2 7.8 4 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 7.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; AFZ, 2011; Anderson et al., 1991; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Dewar, 1967; Krishna, 1985; Krishna, 1985; Lowilai et al., 1995; Morgan et al., 1984; Noblet, 2001; Rao et al., 2004; Reddy, 1997; Sauer et al., 1989; Skiba et al., 2000; Warren et al., 1990; Warren et al., 1990; Yamazaki et al., 1986; Yin et al., 1993; Zombade et al., 1983

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.6 1.6 87.9 95.0 176
Crude protein % DM 6.7 1.2 4.8 10.2 176
Crude fibre % DM 30.8 4.9 21.1 39.9 169
NDF % DM 51.7 6.3 41.1 66.4 65 *
ADF % DM 35.4 4.8 24.9 47.0 65 *
Lignin % DM 11.8 1.7 9.1 16.0 63 *
Ether extract % DM 4.8 1.3 2.1 7.6 144
Ash % DM 19.1 2.6 13.1 24.6 179
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 14.3 3.6 8.1 24.1 43
Total sugars % DM 1.6 0.5 0.8 2.5 20
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.0 0.8 16.5 19.3 36 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.0 0.3 0.6 2.0 126
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.9 1.2 2.1 7.6 118
Potassium g/kg DM 7.3 1.8 4.3 12.3 79
Sodium g/kg DM 1.3 1.8 0.1 7.1 18
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.4 0.6 1.2 3.7 79
Manganese mg/kg DM 157 57 76 279 18
Zinc mg/kg DM 34 10 23 55 18
Copper mg/kg DM 7 2 4 11 17
Iron mg/kg DM 443 393 53 839 3
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.2 0.4 5.9 6.7 4
Arginine % protein 7.4 1.2 5.9 8.6 4
Aspartic acid % protein 8.1 0.5 7.7 8.8 4
Cystine % protein 1.2 0.3 1.0 1.7 4
Glutamic acid % protein 12.7 1.1 11.8 14.3 4
Glycine % protein 5.4 0.4 4.9 5.7 4
Histidine % protein 2.4 0.3 2.1 2.7 4
Isoleucine % protein 6.7 0.2 6.5 7.0 4
Leucine % protein 7.5 0.5 6.9 7.9 4
Lysine % protein 4.6 0.2 4.4 4.9 4
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.4 1.8 2.7 4
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.4 4.4 5.3 4
Proline % protein 6.1 1.0 4.9 7.2 4
Serine % protein 4.3 0.2 4.0 4.6 4
Threonine % protein 3.6 0.3 3.3 4.0 4
Tryptophan % protein 3.1 1.2 2.2 4.9 4
Tyrosine % protein 3.8 0.3 3.4 4.1 4
Valine % protein 6.2 0.4 6.0 6.9 4
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 0.5 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 41.6 4.5 41.6 57.1 3 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 35.5 35.5 56.1 2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.0 6.0 9.0 2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 4.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 26.8 7.1 26.8 71.8 3 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 41.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.1 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.6 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 4.1 *
 
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 5.2 *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 5.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Bateman et al., 1967; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; De Boever et al., 1994; Dongmeza et al., 2009; Ibrahim et al., 1990; Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2006; Ledin et al., 2002; Mlay et al., 2006; Oyenuga, 1968; Parigi-Bini et al., 1991; Walker, 1975

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:23

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Rice bran and other rice by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/750 Last updated on October 5, 2015, 11:03

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)