Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Vinasses

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Vinasse, spent wash, molasses distiller's solubles, molasses distiller's by-products ,dunder, stillage or distillery slop

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Several by-products are obtained after the fermentation and distillation of sugarcane molasses.

The molasses are diluted with water to 40 Brix and heated to 80°C. Sulphuric acid is added to pH 4, and after one hour the solution is centrifuged, thereby removing about 80% of the calcium. The hot clear molasses is cooled, diluted and transferred to the fermenting vessels, where yeast is added. During fermentation the sugars are converted into alcohol. After about forty hours the yeast dies and settles to the bottom of the fermenting vessel, forming rum vat yeast.

The alcoholic liquid (wash) is drawn off at a level of about 20 cm from the bottom, centrifuged and passed into the stills. The solids from the centrifuge, mainly yeast, are placed in settling tanks. Once a day the material at the top of the settling tanks is recycled through the centrifuge and the bottom sediment is dumped. This sediment is similar in composition to the rum vat yeast. The wash contains about 8% alcohol, which is distilled off, leaving a residue that is called spent wash, molasses distiller's solubles, dunder, stillage or distillery slop. The by-products are dried yeast, 1.5% of the weight of the molasses, and spent wash, four times the volume of the molasses or 28% by weight.

The yeast spoils quickly if it is not dried, preferably on roller drums, as it has been shown that rum vat yeast dried at a high temperature (130°C) is nutritionally better than that dried at lower temperatures.

The residue after distillation has a very high content of ash, especially calcium sulphate. If the residue is to be used as animal feed, the calcium must be removed from the molasses prior to fermentation by means of the Reich process.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

The dried rum vat yeast is used in the same way as brewer's dried yeast, which it resembles in amino acid composition, except that rum vat yeast contains less leucine and lysine. Usually it is included at levels of less than 10% in rations for poultry and pigs.

Molasses dried solubles are a good source of vitamins, and it has been claimed that they contain unidentified growth factors.

Ruminants 

Spent wash can be fed to cattle in fresh liquid, in condensed or in dried form, either alone or absorbed in citrus meal, maize cobs, bagasses, and other suitable material. Ammoniated condensed spent wash has been used as a source of protein for beef cattle.

Calves concentrates can contain up to 5% dried solubles.

Pigs 

The dried rum vat yeast is included at levels of less than 10% in pig rations.
Pig feeds can contain up to 5% dried solubles.

Poultry 

The dried rum vat yeast is included at levels of less than 10% in poultry rations.
Poultry feeds can contain up to 2.5% dried solubles,.

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 68.7 3.7 57.7 74.9 887
Crude protein % DM 62.7 5.7 37.5 71.7 868
Ether extract % DM 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.6 3
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 2.1 1.4 0.8 4.0 6
Ash % DM 10.1 3.0 4.8 17.2 619
Total sugars % DM 2.9 1.0 1.7 5.4 93
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.0 0.4 17.5 19.0 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.0 0.9 0.7 4.6 94
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.8 0.8 1.0 4.5 94
Potassium g/kg DM 29.0 18.0 6.2 88.4 390
Sodium g/kg DM 13.7 4.3 7.3 22.9 124
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.0 0.7 0.5 2.0 4
Zinc mg/kg DM 138 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 0.9 1
Arginine % protein 0.5 1
Aspartic acid % protein 1.6 1
Cystine % protein 0.2 0.2 0.2 2
Glutamic acid % protein 29.9 1
Glycine % protein 0.9 1
Histidine % protein 0.4 1
Isoleucine % protein 0.6 1
Leucine % protein 0.7 1
Lysine % protein 0.6 0.4 0.9 2
Methionine % protein 0.4 0.1 0.7 2
Phenylalanine % protein 0.2 1
Proline % protein 0.3 1
Serine % protein 0.8 1
Threonine % protein 0.4 1
Tyrosine % protein 0.6 1
Valine % protein 0.5 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 76.3 5.2 70.6 80.7 3
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 76.5 3.4 71.5 78.3 3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.5 0.9 12.5 14.5 3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 82.5 5.1 76.8 86.4 3
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 70.8 2.7 65.3 75.0 355
Crude protein % DM 69.3 3.5 62.6 76.3 343
Ether extract % DM 0.3 1
Ash % DM 5.8 0.5 4.8 7.0 249
Total sugars % DM 4.3 1.2 3.0 8.0 36
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.9 0.4 0.4 1.8 35
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.2 1.3 1.5 6.4 35
Potassium g/kg DM 3.7 1.0 2.1 5.2 18
Sodium g/kg DM 14.2 3.2 8.9 19.8 42
Magnesium g/kg DM 0.9 0.7 1.1 2
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.4 1.6 2.9 6.6 4
Arginine % protein 0.2 0.0 0.4 2
Aspartic acid % protein 1.2 0.5 0.7 1.6 4
Cystine % protein 0.2 0.0 0.3 2
Glutamic acid % protein 22.5 5.7 15.1 27.1 4
Glycine % protein 0.4 0.4 0.2 1.0 4
Histidine % protein 0.1 0.0 0.2 2
Isoleucine % protein 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.8 4
Leucine % protein 0.5 0.3 0.2 1.0 4
Lysine % protein 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 4
Methionine % protein 0.1 0.0 0.3 2
Phenylalanine % protein 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 3
Proline % protein 1.5 1.4 0.0 2.7 4
Serine % protein 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.4 4
Threonine % protein 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 4
Tyrosine % protein 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.7 4
Valine % protein 0.6 0.6 0.3 1.5 4
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 74.6 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 76.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.4 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 86.6 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 18.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Legrand, 1999

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 65.5 3.4 60.1 72.9 83
Crude protein % DM 69.3 8.2 56.8 84.4 50
Ether extract % DM 0.3 1
Ash % DM 4.7 0.7 4.0 6.4 18
Total sugars % DM 10.1 4.6 4.9 15.9 5
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.0 1.3 0.8 4.0 5
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.9 1.4 2.7 6.1 5
Potassium g/kg DM 3.1 1.5 1.4 4.0 3
Sodium g/kg DM 14.2 4.0 9.4 17.9 5
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.3 1
Aspartic acid % protein 0.2 1
Glutamic acid % protein 1.1 1
Glycine % protein 0.3 1
Isoleucine % protein 0.2 1
Leucine % protein 0.3 1
Lysine % protein 1.0 1
Proline % protein 0.6 1
Serine % protein 0.1 1
Threonine % protein 0.6 1
Tyrosine % protein 0.1 1
Valine % protein 0.3 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 80.1 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 82.3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.8 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 88.5 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 18.3 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:33

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 6.1 5.1 7.0 2
Crude protein % DM 12.2 7.8 16.6 2
Crude fibre % DM 0.6 1
Ether extract % DM 0.2 1
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 15.6 1
Ash % DM 26.5 21.8 31.1 2
Total sugars % DM 37.0 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 12.8 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 62.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.1 1
Potassium g/kg DM 87.5 1
Sodium g/kg DM 21.8 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 0.5 1
Histidine % protein 0.5 1
Isoleucine % protein 1.5 1
Leucine % protein 1.9 1
Lysine % protein 0.9 1
Methionine % protein 0.7 1
Phenylalanine % protein 1.4 1
Threonine % protein 1.8 1
Tryptophan % protein 0.4 1
Tyrosine % protein 1.1 1
Valine % protein 2.3 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 89.2 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Devendra et al., 1970; Lyman et al., 1956

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:18

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/76 Last updated on December 7, 2011, 13:33

Image credits 
Share this