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Leaf protein concentrate and grass juice

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Leaf protein concentrate and grass juice

Related feed(s) 
Description 

Protein concentrate from plant leaves obtained by extracting the leaf juice and coagulation of the protein. Leaf protein concentrates can be made from many plants, including alfalfa, cereal fodder, beet tops etc.

Processes 

Protein synthesis is one of the chief activities of the green part of the plant. Some forage crops produce leaf protein in large quantities of up to 5 tons per hectare - three to four times that of grain crops. The basic technology for separating the leaf protein from the fibrous part or the leaf has been known for about fifty years, but a technology for large-scale production was not developed until the 1970s. The basic steps for the production of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) are grinding the plant and separating the juice by pressing. The protein is dissolved in the juice, after which it is coagulated, usually by heating, and then dried. The machinery needed for large-scale production is expensive, the minimum economical output being about 10 tons of leaf protein per hour - which means that about 5000 hectares are needed for the commercial production of LPC. Smaller machinery has been designed for use at the village level.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Dried LPC contains about 40% crude protein, of which about three quarters is true protein. The amino acid composition is remarkably constant regardless of the green fodder used. The biological value of leaf protein lies between that of soybean and that of milk. The product is green and presents no palatability problems when included in mixed feeds. The recommended level of LPC in diets depends on both the raw material and the processing method; LPC from green cereal fodder, rye grass and marrowstem kale has been shown to cause fewer problems than that from lucerne.
It seems possible to include LPC in the diets of poultry, pigs and calves at levels covering up to 30% of the protein allowances for these species. When using lucerne LPC, this level can under certain conditions create problems, in which case it is advisable to decrease the percentage of inclusion. Protein concentrate from sugar beet tops has given poor results and cannot be recommended until the processing method is changed.

Ruminants 

A milk replacer for calves based on LPC gave very good results. It contained 20% LPC, 12.3% fish protein concentrate (FPC), 48.7% dried whey, 15% animal fat and 4% minerals and vitamins.
The residue from the extraction of the leaf protein from herbage still contains protein and can be used as roughage for cattle, although its palatability is fairly low. As most of the soluble minerals are also extracted with the protein, it is necessary to provide a mineral mix with the residue.

Pigs 

Liquid grass juice can be fed directly to pigs. The juice is readily extracted by mechanical pulping and squeezing on a belt press. The yield of juice is approximately 50% of the weight of the crop. The addition of sodium metabisulphite to the acidified juice at pH 4 permits long-term storage. Grass juice can replace three quarters of the soybean meal in pig rations. It is fed most simply in a ratio of 4:1 liquid to a meal consisting of 93% barley, 5% soybean meal and 2% minerals and vitamins.

Poultry 

At higher levels of inclusion in poultry diets LPC may depress feed intake and increases the incidence of wet droppings. The carcasses of poultry reared on LPC diets are yellower, which in some countries can create market resistance. The LPC preparations now being manufactured are very dusty, which can cause problems in handing.

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.1 1.3 90.1 92.6 3
Crude protein % DM 12.9 3.3 8.5 17.1 7
Crude fibre % DM 29.4 6.6 19.1 36.0 7
NDF % DM 51.9 50.7 53.1 2
ADF % DM 25.7 24.8 26.7 2
Lignin % DM 6.7 4.1 1.5 10.7 6
Ether extract % DM 2.2 0.8 1.2 3.3 7
Ash % DM 8.2 1.8 6.3 11.4 7
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.1 1.1 16.6 19.1 6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 16.1 15.9 16.3 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2 1.1 1.2 2
Potassium g/kg DM 7.2 7.1 7.3 2
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 0.2 0.2 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 1.5 1.5 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 69.7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 66.5 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Hartman et al., 1967; Walker et al., 1982

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:35

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.2 0.8 92.4 94.0 3
Crude protein % DM 47.1 0.5 46.7 47.7 3
Crude fibre % DM 0.9 0.1 0.7 1.0 3
Ether extract % DM 10.0 1.8 7.9 11.3 3
Ash % DM 18.2 2.3 15.6 20.2 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.1 *
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.6 0.2 5.5 5.8 3
Arginine % protein 5.6 0.6 5.2 6.3 3
Aspartic acid % protein 9.3 0.8 8.7 10.2 3
Cystine % protein 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.6 4
Glutamic acid % protein 10.4 0.9 9.6 11.4 3
Glycine % protein 5.0 0.2 4.9 5.4 4
Histidine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.1 2.5 4
Isoleucine % protein 4.9 1.3 4.2 6.8 4
Leucine % protein 9.2 1.3 8.2 11.1 4
Lysine % protein 6.7 1.1 5.8 8.3 4
Methionine % protein 2.3 0.2 2.1 2.4 3
Phenylalanine % protein 5.2 1.2 3.4 6.2 4
Proline % protein 4.7 0.1 4.6 4.8 3
Serine % protein 4.1 0.4 3.8 4.5 3
Threonine % protein 4.5 0.3 4.3 4.8 3
Tryptophan % protein 1.8 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.7 1.0 3.9 6.1 4
Valine % protein 6.1 1.3 5.3 8.0 4
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Hanczakowski et al., 1989; Hughes, 1958

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:49

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.1 0.8 89.7 93.9 1557
Crude protein % DM 56.9 1.9 51.8 61.4 1550
Crude fibre % DM 2.0 0.8 1.0 4.1 105
NDF % DM 29.5 1
ADF % DM 4.8 1
Lignin % DM 1.5 1
Ether extract % DM 8.0 1.2 6.3 10.2 39
Ash % DM 10.9 1.5 8.3 14.6 686
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 0.9 0.2 0.5 1.0 7
Total sugars % DM 0.7 0.2 0.2 1.1 8
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.7 0.5 20.2 21.7 12 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 37.0 4.1 30.7 45.2 69
Phosphorus g/kg DM 9.1 1.0 7.7 12.1 61
Potassium g/kg DM 9.2 2.1 6.9 11.0 3
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 36
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.6 0.1 1.5 1.7 3
Manganese mg/kg DM 112 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 44 1
Copper mg/kg DM 14 1
Iron mg/kg DM 420 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.8 0.1 5.8 5.9 3
Arginine % protein 6.2 0.1 6.1 6.3 3
Aspartic acid % protein 9.7 0.3 9.5 9.9 3
Cystine % protein 0.9 0.1 0.8 1.0 3
Glutamic acid % protein 10.7 0.4 10.4 11.1 3
Glycine % protein 5.2 0.1 5.2 5.3 3
Histidine % protein 2.4 0.1 2.4 2.5 3
Isoleucine % protein 5.3 0.3 5.1 5.6 3
Leucine % protein 9.0 0.1 9.0 9.1 3
Lysine % protein 6.0 0.1 5.9 6.1 3
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.0 2.0 2.1 3
Phenylalanine % protein 5.9 0.1 5.8 6.0 3
Proline % protein 4.7 0.2 4.5 4.9 3
Serine % protein 4.4 0.2 4.3 4.7 3
Threonine % protein 4.9 0.1 4.8 5.0 3
Tryptophan % protein 2.4 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.6 0.1 4.5 4.7 3
Valine % protein 6.3 0.2 6.1 6.5 3
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 88.9 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 90.1 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 19.5 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 86.9 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 18.8 15.6 18.8 2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 17.4 13.8 17.4 2 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 89.4 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Bourdon et al., 1980

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:35

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/77 Last updated on April 15, 2015, 10:43

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