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Bone meal

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Bone meal, bone ash, bone flour, bone charcoal, bone black

Species 
Related feed(s) 
Description 

Bone meal is a by-product of the slaughtering of livestock and rendering of dead animals. Often the sketetal system (bones) is separated from meat during the processing of meat. These bones can then be converted into bone meal using several different methods.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Bone meal can be used to provide a source of calcium, phosphorus and other minerals in livestock feeding programs. It can be used to replace dicalcium phosphate, which can be made from bones by treating them with a caustic and then with HCl and then precipitating with lime and drying, or other routinely used calcium and phosphorus sources. There are no limitations on using bone meal to replace other dietary calcium and phosphorus sources. Care needs to be taken when formulating rations to assure that the calcium and phosphorus ratio do not get out of the acceptable range.

Potential constraints 

Bones like other animal by-products should be adequately heated in order to assure that disease agents are not spread.

Ruminants 

Researchers found it to be an excellent source of P in feeding dairy cattle (El-Hag et al., 1999).

Pigs 

It was demonstrated that it could replace dicalcium phosphate in swine rations (Hynek, 1991).

Poultry 

Fresh dried bones were shown to be an acceptable source of Ca and P for layers (Rajic et al., 1993), but care should be taken that it is heated adequately to ensure that disease organisms are not being spread.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 95.4 1.2 93.3 97.2 24
Crude protein % DM 0.0 1
Crude fibre % DM 0.0 1
Ether extract % DM 0.0 1
Ash % DM 84.5 2.6 76.9 88.4 23
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 1.6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 303.2 18.9 263.0 340.0 24
Phosphorus g/kg DM 140.2 6.5 121.6 148.0 24
Potassium g/kg DM 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.5 19
Sodium g/kg DM 10.0 2.5 6.3 12.9 18
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.2 0.4 3.5 5.1 18
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 90.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 1.4 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Göhl, 1970; Pozy et al., 1996

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:49

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 75.0 1
Crude protein % DM 36.0 1
Crude fibre % DM 3.0 1
Ether extract % DM 4.0 1
Ash % DM 49.0 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 11.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 220.0 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 100.0 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 8.1 1
Histidine % protein 1.0 1
Isoleucine % protein 2.6 1
Leucine % protein 3.5 1
Lysine % protein 4.7 1
Methionine % protein 0.7 1
Phenylalanine % protein 2.2 1
Threonine % protein 2.5 1
Valine % protein 3.0 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 85.4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.7 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Göhl, 1970; Williams, 1955

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:49

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.5 92.0 93.0 2
Crude protein % DM 8.0 6.0 10.0 2
Crude fibre % DM 1.0 0.0 2.0 2
Ether extract % DM 2.0 1.0 3.0 2
Ash % DM 85.0 78.0 92.0 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 2.4 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 325.0 320.0 330.0 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 150.0 150.0 150.0 2
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Arginine % protein 7.7 1
Histidine % protein 2.9 1
Isoleucine % protein 7.1 1
Leucine % protein 14.9 1
Lysine % protein 13.5 1
Methionine % protein 2.8 1
Phenylalanine % protein 8.6 1
Threonine % protein 8.9 1
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 1
Tyrosine % protein 11.1 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 88.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 2.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

American Meat Institute Foundation, 1960; DLG, 1961; Göhl, 1970

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:49

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/219 Last updated on June 17, 2010, 0:27

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