Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Glossary

All

A | B | C | D | E | G | H | I | L | M | N | O | P | S | T | V | W | Z
Name Definition
a (DM)

Immediately degradable dry matter fraction (%) in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

a (N)

Immediately degradable nitrogen (N) fraction (%) in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

ADF

Acid Detergent Fiber, fraction of the cell walls according to Van Soest, considered to be roughly equivalent to true cellulose and lignin.

Alanine

Amino acid. Often abbreviated ALA.

AME poultry

Apparent metabolizable energy, poultry. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the droppings and gasses, not corrected for nitrogen retention.

AMEn broiler

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers.

AMEn broiler, ground

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers fed ground feed.

AMEn broiler, pelleted

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for broilers fed pelleted feed.

AMEn cockerel

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels.

AMEn cockerel, ground

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels fed ground feed.

AMEn cockerel, pelleted

Apparent metabolizable energy, nitrogen-corrected, for cockerels fed pelleted feed.

AMEn poultry

Apparent metabolizable energy, N-corrected, poultry. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces, urines and gasses, corrected for a nitrogen balance of 0.

Arginine

Amino acid. Often abbreviated as ARG.

Ash

Ash remaining after incineration, a rough approximation of mineral matter.

Aspartic acid

Amino acid. Often abbreviated ASP.

b (DM)

Potentially degradable dry matter fraction (%) in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

b (N)

Potentially degradable nitrogen fraction (%) in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

Bloat

Bloat occurs when the fermentation gases produced in the rumen can not be evacuated and cause an overdistention of the rumen. There are two forms of bloat. The frothy bloat (called primary bloat) is due to a persistent foam mixed with the ruminal contents. The free-gas bloat (called secondary bloat) is due to free gas separated from the ingesta that cannot go out of the rumen because of mechanical obstruction. Bloat mainly occurs in cattle but may also be seen in sheep. There are individual (genetically determined) susceptibilities to bloat (Kahn, 2005).

c (DM)

Hourly degradation rate of particles (h-1) for dry matter in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

c (N)

Hourly degradation rate of particles (h-1) for nitrogen in the model of ruminal degradation y = a+b (1-e-ct) (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

Calcium

A major mineral (symbol Ca) essential for living organisms, in particular in cell physiology and for the mineralization of bone, teeth and shells.

Copper

Chemical element (symbol Cu), usually a trace element in biological materials.

Coumarin

Coumarin, a fragrant organic chemical compound in the benzopyrone chemical class that interacts with blood coagulation.

CP

Abbreviation for Crude protein.

Crude fibre

A measurement of fibre content. Also known as Weende cellulose, crude fibre is the insoluble residue of an acid hydrolysis followed by an alkaline one. This residue contains true cellulose and insoluble lignin. It is also used to assess hair, hoof or feather residues in animal by-products. Even though the more accurate Van Soest analysis has superseded it since the 1970s, the analysis of crude fibre remains common in feed laboratories.

Crude protein

A measurement of protein content. In animal feeds, crude protein is calculated as mineral nitrogen x 6.25 (the assumption is that proteins of typical animal feeds contain 16% nitrogen in average). The mineral nitrogen value is obtained by the Kjeldahl method, or by a method giving similar results after correction, such as the Dumas method.

Cystine

A sulphur amino acid, particularly important for the constitution of hair and feathers.

DE growing pig

Digestible energy for the growing pig. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE rabbit

Digestible energy for rabbits. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE ruminants

Digestible energy for ruminants. Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DE salmonids

Digestible energy for salmonids (salmons and trouts). Difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the faeces.

DM

Abbreviation for dry matter.

DM degradability (effective, k=6%)

Effective degradability of dry matter in ruminants, calculated with a hourly disappearance rate of 6%. The effective degradability is calculated as D = a + ((b*c)/(k+c)) where a = fraction immediately degradable, b = fraction potentially degradable, c = degradation rate of particles and k = hourly disappearance rate of particles (Ørskov and MacDonald, 1979).

DM digestibility, pepsin

Dry matter digestibility estimated by an in vitro method using pepsin, such as the one developed by Tilley and Terry (1963), which involves rumen liquor and pepsin.

DM digestibility, pepsin-cellulase

Dry matter digestibility estimated by an in vitro method combining pepsin and a cellulase enzyme.

DM digestibility, ruminants

Dry matter digestibility for ruminants, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) dry matter in the dry matter of the feed.

Dry matter

Dry matter is calculated as the difference between the total weight and the moisture content. It is usually obtained by oven-drying, but there are methods specific to products such as silages, fats and molasses. Usually abbreviated as DM.

Energy digestibility, growing pig

Energy digestibility for growing pigs, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) energy relative to the gross energy of the feed.

Energy digestibility, rabbit

Energy digestibility for rabbits, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) energy relative to the gross energy of the feed.

Energy digestibility, ruminants

Energy digestibility for ruminants, calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) energy relative to the gross energy of the feed.

Energy digestibility, salmonids

Energy digestibility for salmonids (salmons and trouts), calculated as percentage of digestible (total tract) energy relative to the gross energy of the feed.

Ether extract

Crude fat, extracted by diethyl ether or petroleum ether, usually without prior hydrolysis.

Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis

Crude fat, extracted by diethyl ether or petroleum ether or hexane, with a prior HCl hydrolysis.

Glutamic acid

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as GLU.

Glycine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as GLY.

Gross energy

Gross energy (or heat of combustion) is measured as the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen in a bomb calorimeter. It can be predicted  relatively accurately from the chemical composition. Often abbreviated as GE.

Histidine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as HIS.

Iron

Chemical element (symbol Fe), usually a trace element in biological materials.Iron (when a trace element).

Isoleucine

Amino acid. Usually abbreviated as ILE.

Lactose

A disaccharide sugar that is found most notably in milk and is formed from galactose and glucose.

Pages