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Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans and by-products

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Cacao, cacaoyer, cocoa, cacaoeiro, cacau

Synonyms 

Theobroma leiocarpum Bernoulli, Theobroma pentagonum Bernoulli, Theobroma sativum (Aubl.) Lign. & Le Bey, Theobroma sphaerocarpum A. Chev.

Related feed(s) 
Description 

A tree indigenous to South America, but now cultivated mainly in West Africa within 20 of the equator. A tropical rain-forest crop, cocoa is cultivated for its beans, which are contained in large red or yellow pods growing directly on the stems and branches of the tree.

Distribution 

Indigenous to South America, but now cultivated mainly in West Africa within 20° of the equator.

Processes 

The beans are embedded in a white mucilage (together about one third the total weight of the pod). Both the mucilage and beans are taken out of the pod and fermented. The fermented dried beans are then processed in chocolate factories. First, they are roasted to develop flavour and aroma. After cooling, the beans are cracked and the shell winnowed away, leaving the cracked seed kernels known as the nib. The nib is ground to give cocoa mass or chocolate liquor, from which the cocoa fat (cocoa butter) is extracted by pressing. The resulting cake is pulverized into cocoa powder.
The pods, being rich in potassium, are left in the field to fertilize the cocoa trees. The pods rot very quickly.

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Cocoa shells, beans and oilcake all have high nutritive values and could serve as feedstuffs for livestock except for their theobromine content. The shells are a good source of vitamin D.

Potential constraints 

Cocoa beans and shells contain theobromine, an alkaloid poisonous to animals, which limits their use for feeding. The level of theobromine is very low in the pods. Cocoa products can be rendered harmless by being cooked in water for one and a half hours, filtered and dried.

Ruminants 

Fresh pods are sometimes consumed by livestock, but for efficient use they must be dried and ground. Pod meal has been fed without toxic effects to cattle in quantities of up to 7 kg per day. For dairy cows, pod meal seems to be comparable in value to corn-on-cob meal. Rations containing cocoa pod meal have a somewhat lower feed efficiency for beef cattle, but this will be compensated by the larger intake.

Pigs 

For pigs, cocoa pod meal has replaced maize and can constitute up to 35% of the ration without decreasing weight gains. It has been fed to pigs in quantities of up to 2 kg per day. To ensure that the animals consume sufficient quantities, the pods must be sun-dried (to 60% moisture content) and then chopped, ground and pelletized.
While untreated cocoa beans and oil cake can be hazardous to pigs, pig rations can include up to 25% of the processed product without reducing weight gains or feed efficiency.

Poultry 

Untreated cocoa beans and oil cake can be hazardous to poultry.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.6 2.2 85.3 93.8 368
Crude protein % DM 17.8 0.9 15.8 19.8 361
Crude fibre % DM 20.7 1.4 17.8 23.7 364
NDF % DM 46.5 3.2 39.1 53.4 70
ADF % DM 36.8 2.5 30.4 41.1 71
Lignin % DM 17.4 1.8 14.0 21.9 116
Ether extract % DM 5.9 1.6 2.6 9.2 197
Ash % DM 9.3 0.6 8.3 10.7 217
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 7.7 0.8 6.8 8.3 3
Total sugars % DM 1.0 0.4 1.6 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8 0.5 18.3 19.7 6 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.7 0.7 2.2 5.1 107
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.4 0.6 3.2 5.8 117
Potassium g/kg DM 26.8 2.1 22.0 30.2 45
Sodium g/kg DM 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 17
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.3 3.6 5.0 2
Copper mg/kg DM 39 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Cystine % protein 1.3 1
Lysine % protein 5.1 1
Methionine % protein 1.3 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 11.8 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 38.2 1
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 35.8 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.7 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 5.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 56.9 13.1 56.9 2 *
a (N) % 37.2 1
b (N) % 36.4 1
c (N) h-1 0.041 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 56 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 52 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 19.6 1
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 3.7 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 2.9 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 1.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % -7.7 1
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 28.1 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 5.3 1
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 5.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Azevêdo et al., 2011; Carvalho Junior et al., 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Maertens et al., 2001; Marcondes et al., 2009; Morgan et al., 1980; Neumark, 1970; Noblet, 2001; Onwuka et al., 1997; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.8 1.7 86.3 95.0 35
Crude protein % DM 28.3 0.8 26.3 29.4 37
Crude fibre % DM 15.4 2.7 9.6 18.6 36
NDF % DM 44.0 9.9 32.0 53.7 5
ADF % DM 29.3 6.7 21.9 36.7 6
Lignin % DM 18.5 3.7 13.9 24.1 7
Ether extract % DM 2.0 3.4 0.2 12.5 36
Ash % DM 8.5 2.2 5.2 12.2 19
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 10.3 1.5 7.8 11.3 5
Total sugars % DM 0.9 0.0 0.9 0.9 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.1 0.5 1.5 2.7 10
Phosphorus g/kg DM 7.4 0.3 6.9 7.9 9
Potassium g/kg DM 20.6 3.6 16.5 24.0 4
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.1 2
Magnesium g/kg DM 4.5 2.3 1.1 6.1 4
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Cystine % protein 1.5 0.0 1.4 1.5 3
Lysine % protein 4.0 0.1 4.0 4.2 3
Methionine % protein 1.3 0.0 1.2 1.3 3
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 16.4 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 61.0 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.4 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.4 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 70.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Braude, 1943; CIRAD, 1991; Morgan et al., 1980; Owusu-Domfeh et al., 1970

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.0 3.6 87.2 94.9 6
Crude protein % DM 7.7 1.4 5.9 11.1 11
Crude fibre % DM 29.3 5.1 22.6 35.4 10
NDF % DM 55.2 9.6 43.1 64.4 4
ADF % DM 43.5 9.5 33.4 56.4 5
Lignin % DM 13.4 1.2 12.2 14.6 3
Ether extract % DM 2.7 3.3 0.5 9.9 11
Ash % DM 11.2 3.0 7.8 17.2 11
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.4 4.9 12.8 22.6 3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 5.7 2.2 2.2 8.8 8
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.4 3.2 1.0 10.7 8
Potassium g/kg DM 50.1 22.1 30.8 76.0 5
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 5.4 2.3 2.2 8.0 6
Manganese mg/kg DM 95 58 34 150 3
Zinc mg/kg DM 85 30 40 100 4
Copper mg/kg DM 1278 2482 6 5000 4
Iron mg/kg DM 1180 1818 90 3900 4
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.2 4.7 5.7 2
Arginine % protein 3.2 2.9 3.5 2
Aspartic acid % protein 10.2 10.0 10.4 2
Cystine % protein 1.2 1
Glutamic acid % protein 10.5 10.1 10.9 2
Glycine % protein 4.2 3.8 4.6 2
Histidine % protein 2.6 2.4 2.7 2
Isoleucine % protein 3.5 3.1 3.9 2
Leucine % protein 6.1 5.6 6.6 2
Lysine % protein 5.0 4.7 5.2 2
Methionine % protein 0.6 0.5 0.7 2
Phenylalanine % protein 4.4 4.1 4.8 2
Proline % protein 5.2 5.0 5.4 2
Serine % protein 5.0 4.7 5.4 2
Threonine % protein 4.3 3.9 4.6 2
Tryptophan % protein 0.5 1
Tyrosine % protein 2.6 2.4 2.7 2
Valine % protein 5.6 5.4 5.7 2
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 1.7 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 44.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.7 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 49.2 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bateman et al., 1967; CIRAD, 1991; Devendra et al., 1970; Donkoh et al., 1991; Gowda et al., 2004; Kuan et al., 1982; Ohlde et al., 1982; Okai et al., 1984; Orskov et al., 1992; Ridzwan et al., 1993; Sobamiwa et al., 1994; Tuah et al., 1996; Vadiveloo et al., 1992

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:43

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/23 Last updated on April 5, 2010, 18:12

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