Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Common bean, bean, French bean, kidney bean, runner bean, snap bean, string bean, garden bean, green bean, haricot bean, bush bean, navy bean, pole bean, flageolet bean [English]; haricot à couper, haricot, haricot commun, haricot pain, flageolet, haricot vert [French]; judía, frijol comun, nuña, habichuela, poroto, vainita [Spanish]; feijão, feijoeiro [Portuguese]; gewone boon [Dutch]; Gartenbohne [German]; buncis [Indonesian]; fagiolo [Italian]; maharage [Swahili]; fasulye [Turkish]; đậu cô ve [Vietnamese]; ኣደንጓሬ [Amharic]; فاصولياء شائعة [Arabic]; 菜豆 [Chinese]; Φασίολος ο κοινός [Greek]; שעועית מצויה [Hebrew]; सामान्य फलियाँ [Hindi]; インゲンマメ [Japanese]; 강낭콩 [Korean]; घेवडा [Marathi]; Фасо́ль обыкнове́нная [Russian]

Synonyms 

Phaseolus aborigineus Burkart, Phaseolus compressus DC., Phaseolus compressus var. carneus G. Martens, Phaseolus compressus var. cervinus G. Martens, Phaseolus compressus var. ferrugineus G. Martens, Phaseolus ellipticus var. albus G. Martens, Phaseolus ellipticus var. aureolus G. Martens, Phaseolus ellipticus var. helvolus Savi, Phaseolus ellipticus var. mesomelos Haberle, Phaseolus ellipticus var. pictus Caval., Phaseolus ellipticus var. spadiceus G. Martens, Phaseolus gonospermus var. oryzoides G. Martens, Phaseolus gonospermus var. variegatus Savi, Phaseolus nanus L., Phaseolus oblongus var. albus G. Martens, Phaseolus oblongus var. spadiceus Savi, Phaseolus oblongus var. zebrinus G. Martens, Phaseolus sphaericus var. atropurpureus G. Martens, Phaseolus sphaericus var. minor G. Martens, Phaseolus vulgaris var. albus Haberle, Phaseolus vulgaris var. mexicanus Freytag, nom. inval., Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus G. Martens, Phaseolus vulgaris var. niger G. Martens, Phaseolus vulgaris var. ochraceus Savi, Phaseolus vulgaris var. variegatus DC., Phaseolus zebra var. carneus G. Martens, Phaseolus zebra var. purpurascens G. Martens.

Related feed(s) 
Description 

The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a major grain legume consumed worldwide for its edible seeds and pods. It is a highly polymorphic warm-season, herbaceous annual. There are 2 plant types: erect herbaceous bushes, up to 20-60 cm high; and twining, climbing vines up to 2-5 m long (Ecocrop, 2013; Smoliak et al., 1990). It has a taproot with many adventitious roots (Ecoport, 2013). The stems of bushy types are rather slender, pubescent and many-branched. In twinning types, the stems are prostrate for most of their length and rise toward the end (Ecoport, 2013). The leaves, borne on long green petioles, are green or purple in colour and trifoliate. Leaflets are 6-15 cm long and 3-11 cm broad. The inflorescences are axillary or terminal, 15-35 cm long racemes. The flowers are arranged in pairs or solitary along the rachis, white to purple and typically papillonaceous (Ecoport, 2013Wortmann, 2006). Once pollinated, each flower gives rise to one pod. Pods are slender, green, yellow, black or purple in colour, sometimes striped. They can be cylindrical or flat, straight or curved, 1-1.5 cm wide and up to 20 cm in length (Wortmann, 2006). The pods may contain 4 to 12 seeds. The seeds are 0.5-2 cm long, kidney-shaped and highly variable in colour depending on the variety: white, red, green, tan, purple, gray or black.

Common beans are an important source of proteins, minerals (iron and zinc) and vitamins for many human populations (Beebe et al., 2000). Immature pods are eaten fresh and can be easily preserved by freezing, canning or dehydrating. Mature pods and seeds are dried. Beans are eaten boiled, baked, fried, or ground into flour. Crop residues, such as dried pods and stems (straw) and processing by-products (discarded pods, pod extremities), can be used as fodder (Wortmann, 2006CNC, 2004).

Distribution 

Phaseolus vulgaris originated from Central and South America, where it was cultivated as early as 6000 BC in Peru and 5000 BC in Mexico. It was introduced to the Old World by the Spaniards and the Portuguese. It is now widespread and cultivated as a major food crop in many tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the Americas, Europe, Africa and Asia (Wortmann, 2006).

The common bean is a warm season legume that does better under subtropical and temperate conditions. It can be found in tropical areas but does not do well under very wet conditions, which cause fungal attacks and flower drop. It can be advantageously replaced by cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in such conditions (Ecoport, 2013). Common bean grows from sea level up to an altitude of 2200-3000 m where annual rainfall is between 300 and 4300 mm, with an optimum between 500 and 1500 mm, and where average temperatures range between 15°C and 23°C. It can grow under higher temperatures (35°C) but this may hamper seed production. It has slight frost tolerance but growth stops below 10°C and frost hinders yield at various stages of growth (Wortmann, 2006; Smoliak et al., 1990). Dry weather during the maturing stage benefits seed preservation. The common bean grows well on a large variety of soils with pH ranging from 4 to 9. However, it does better on well-drained, sandy loam, silt loam or clay loam soils, rich in organic content. It generally cannot withstand waterlogging though some cultivars do well in standing water (Ecoport, 2013). It is sensitive to Al, B, Mn and high levels of Na. Deficiencies in minerals may arise in calcareous soils (Zn deficiency) and in sandy acidic soils (Mg and Mo deficiencies) (Ecoport, 2013; Wortmann, 2006).

Worldwide statistics on common beans are difficult to collect, as the various Phaseolus and Vigna species are often lumped together. According to the FAO, production of dry beans (theoretically only Phaseolus species) was about 23 million t in 2012, cultivated on 29 million ha. Myanmar, India, Brazil, China, the USA, Mexico and Tanzania represented two-thirds of the world production of dry beans. China was the main producer of fresh beans (Phaseolus and Vigna species: 17 million t in 2011, 77% of total world production) (FAO, 2013). According to other sources, 30% of common bean production comes from South America. Common bean is less known in Asia where other grain legumes are preferred (Ecoport, 2013). However, production in China is important, where the estimated acreage in the first decades of this century was about 0.6 million ha (Cheng Xuzhen et al., 2011).

Information is scarce regarding the production of forage and by-products associated with the common bean crop. Common bean by-products are seasonal and, like other fresh products, they are available in the vicinity of processing plants (CNC, 2004).

Processes 

Due to the presence of numerous antinutritional factors, processing raw beans by heat and other methods is recommended (see Potential constraints on the "Nutritional aspects" tab).

Forage management 

The duration of the common bean life cycle ranges from 60-90 days for determinate types, to 250-300 days for indeterminate climbing types. Pods may be harvested 25-30 days after flowering and yields up to 5-7.5 t/ha of green pods have been reported (Ecocrop, 2013; Wortmann, 2006). If common bean is grown for dry beans another 23-50 days are required for seed-filling. The average yield of dried beans is 0.5-1.5 t/ha, but yields up to 2.8-5 t/ha have been reported (Wortmann, 2006). A yield of 1.6 kg green biomass/m² (about 16 t green biomass/ha) has been reported (CNC, 2004).

Bean crop residues can be fed fresh to livestock. Common bean directly grazed in the field is subject to trampling, resulting in subsequent losses, which could be avoided by harvesting it for cut-and-carry systems (Nahimana, 2000). Common beans can be mixed with small grains in order to increase the protein content of silage (Linn et al., 2002). Intercropping common bean into maize (Zea mays L.) gives silage yields that are as high as with monocropped maize, but richer in protein (Dawo et al., 2009).

Environmental impact 

N-fixing legume

Phaseolus vulgaris is less efficient in fixing N than other legumes, but is reported to have fixed up to 125 kg N/ha. It can nodulate with several rhizobia (Wortmann, 2006).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Beans (seeds)

Common beans are rich in protein (22-27% DM) and starch (39-47% DM), and relatively low in fibre (crude fibre less than 6% DM), making them a potentially valuable dietary ingredient for all livestock species. However, the presence of antinutritional factors degrades their potential feeding value, notably for monogastric animals (van der Poel et al., 1990a).

Straw and crop residues

The composition of bean crop residues depends on the proportions of stems, pod husks and leaves: stems and pod husks have a low protein content (8% and 4% DM, respectively) while the leaves are much richer in protein (20% DM) (Pieltain et al., 1998). Common bean straw (haulms) contains about 5-11% protein in the DM and is rich in fibre (crude fibre 38-45% DM). However, like other legume straws, it has a better nutritive value than cereal straws due to a higher protein and a lower fibre content, though the composition is variable: for instance, the DM of stem-rich bean straw was reported to contain 61% NDF vs. 51% for a leaf-rich straw (Lopez et al., 2005).

Potential constraints 

Antinutritional factors

Common beans contain several antinutritional compounds, notably enzyme inhibitors (trypsin, chymotrypsin, α-amylase), phytic acid, flatulence factors, saponins and lectins (Lyimo et al., 1992). The nature and activity of those compounds vary greatly among cultivars: for instance, raw navy beans were shown to contain twice the trypsin inhibitor activity than red kidney beans but half the lectin activity (Dhurandhar et al., 1990). Those antinutritional factors may hamper the performance of monogastric animals or even be toxic: for example lectins are known to have caused food poisining in humans who have eaten undercooked or raw beans. It is then highly recommended to process raw common beans before feeding them to pigs, poultry and other monogastric livestock. Treatments such as heating, autoclaving, cooking or extruding have been shown to remove heat-sensitive antinutritional factors (Bollini et al., 1999; Akande et al., 2010a; Carvalho et al., 1997; Dhurandhar et al., 1990; Kakade et al., 1965). Biological treatments such as germination, ensiling, treatment with pancreatin or with chemicals can also be effective in removing antinutritional factors in common beans (Schulze et al., 1997Savelkoul et al., 1994). Lectin content may be reduced by cooking above 100°C, but cooking at a lower temperature (80°C) increased lectin content and toxicity (FDA, 2012).

Ruminants 

The whole common bean plant is of minor importance as fodder in ruminant feeding, but beans, straw and other crop residues and processing by-products are occasionally used.

Beans

The common bean seeds are relatively rich in protein, but, like other legume grains, the nitrogen is rapidly degraded in the rumen. The degradation rate can be slowed by the addition of commercial tannic acid up to 50 g/kg DM (Martinez et al., 2004).

Dairy cows

In Brazil, in dairy cows fed a TMR, the replacement of soybean meal with cull common beans (damaged seeds of various varieties and origins mixed with foreign materials), up to 39% of the concentrate DM, linearly decreased both intake and milk production, but did not affect feed efficiency. The digestibility of OM and NDF was not affected, while protein digestibility decreased and digestibility of non-fibre carbohydrates linearly increased (Rodrigues Magalhaes et al., 2008).

Beef cows

In Colorado, in beef cows (540-600 kg BW) grazing native winter range, cull beans were of low palatability but otherwise comparable to sunflower meal as a protein supplement for body weight, body condition score, reproductive performance and calf performance (Patterson et al., 1999).

Sheep

In Australia, navy beans were used as supplements for young sheep fed low quality roughage ad libitum. A low or moderate inclusion of navy beans (10 or 20 g/kg LW0.75) resulted in a similar increase in DM intake and OM digestibility as other legume supplements (blue lupin Lupinus angustifolius or cowpea Vigna unguiculata). Productivity from a supplement of 10 g/kg LW0.75 of navy beans was similar to that observed with the same level of lupins or cowpeas. However, when higher levels were used live-weight gain and wool growth were lower than expected, presumably due to the detrimental effects of antinutritional factors in the navy beans that were not inactivated by rumen fermentation (Paduano et al., 1995).

Fresh bean forage

There is little information available on the utilization of fresh common bean forage. It was well accepted and used with a high digestive efficiency by goats (Boza et al., 1981), and also by captive lesser mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) (Darlis et al., 1999).

Bean crop residues and bean straw

Digestibility

In Spain, in a comparison of postharvest bean by-products the ME content of the residues were estimated at 9.2 (stems), 8.5 (leaves) and 10 (pods) MJ/kg DM, which are values close to that of medium quality grass hay. Leaf protein was highly degradable in the rumen (70%) (Pieltain et al., 1998). Due to a higher protein and lower fibre content, bean straw has a higher in vitro DM digestibility and metabolizable energy content than cereal straws. Leaf-rich straw has a higher in vitro DM digestibility than stem-rich straw (74 vs. 68%) and a higher ME (8.0 vs. 7.3 MJ/kg DM, estimated by the gas production method) (Lopez et al., 2005).

Goats

In Mexico, bean straw and maize stubbles included at 15% of goat diets resulted in lower body weight gains and feed efficiency than those obtained with a good quality forage-based diet (Serrato Corona et al., 2004). Bean haulms were poorly ingested and digested by low producing goats in Ethiopia (Aredo et al., 2003). However, in Malawi, bean haulms satisfied the requirements of low producing goats (Ayoade et al., 1983). In Mexico, bean straw was used as a basal diet (75 to 80%, up to 3.5% BW) for studying responses to supplementation with alfalfa or acacia leaves (Ramirez et al., 1997).

Llamas

In Chile, when llamas (Lama glama) were fed bean straw, ingestibility and protein digestibility were similar to those obtained from ryegrass hay (29 g/kg BW0.75/d and 35% respectively). The digestibilities of NDF (54%) and ADF (52%) were found similar to those of oat straw (Lopez et al., 2001).

Pigs 

Beans

Raw beans

Raw common beans contain antinutritional factors that are deleterious to pigs. Raw beans included at 20% of the diet reduced pancreas, thymus and spleen weight, protein digestibility, N balance and overall performance (Huisman et al., 1990a). Casein supplementation did not improve performance but alleviated the effects on the organs (Huisman et al., 1990b).

Processed beans

It is recommended to process common beans before feeding them to pigs. Heat treatments (102°C for 20 min or 136°C for 1.5 min) were shown to have beneficial effects on the nutritive value of common beans as they almost completely destroyed antinutritional factors. Heating also enhanced the digestibility of dry matter, protein and lysine (van der Poel et al., 1991avan der Poel et al., 1991b). However, in piglets, compared to maize-casein, common beans heated at 105°C for 20 min were less readily eaten, and growth rate was reduced (van der Poel et al., 1990b). Co-extruded cull common beans and soybeans in ratio ranging from 1:8 to 3:4 replaced soybean meal in growing and finishing pig diets without hampering animal performance (Myer et al., 1989; Myer et al., 1983).

Phytohaemagglutinin

Phytohaemagglutinin has been extracted from common beans in order to ease weaning in commercial piglets. Phytohaemagglutinin helps gastro-intestinal mucosa maturation. Piglets receiving phytohaemagglutinin prior to weaning had longer small intestinal length, lower lactase and higher maltase and sucrase activities (Thomsson et al., 2007). Piglets (10-14 day) receiving preweaning treatment with a commercial preparation of phytohaemagglutinin extracted from common beans had higher body weight at weaning, less diarrhea and lower mortality rates, resulting in lower veterinary costs (Kiciak et al., 2010; Piedra et al., 2006).

Poultry 

Beans

Raw, dehulled or fermented beans

Poultry species are sensitive to antinutritional factors contained in raw common beans, though less so than pigs (van der Poel, 1990Huisman et al., 1990b; Myer et al., 1989). Chicken fed raw beans had no differences in spleen and thymus weights compared to birds fed the control diet (Huisman et al., 1990b). However, raw common beans increased weight of the intestine and decreased liver weight (Emiola et al., 2006; Huisman et al., 1990b). Livers showed marked coagulative necrosis and degeneration of hepatocytes, while there was a severe congestion of glomeruli and distention of the capillary vessels with thrombi in the kidneys (Emiola et al., 2007a; Emiola et al., 2007b; Emiola et al., 2006). Fermented common beans included at levels ranging from 5 to 20% in poultry diets gave lower feed intakes, lower live-weight gains and reduced feed efficiency. It was suggested to limit their inclusion to 5% of the diet (Siriwan et al., 2005a; Siriwan et al., 2005b).

Heat-treated beans

Several experiments showed that aqueous cooking, in preference to toasting, or soaking-extruding increased the nutritive value of common beans in poultry diets, with satisfactory results compared to control diets (Emiola et al., 2007a; Emiola et al., 2007b; Teguia et al., 2007; Emiola et al., 2006; Arija et al., 2006; Emiola et al., 2003; van der Poel et al., 1990b). With boiled, cooked or extruded common beans, digestibilities of nutrients (protein, aminoacids, ether extract, crude fibre, ash and N) were higher than with raw, toasted or dehulled beans (Arija et al., 2006; Emiola et al., 2003). Heat-processed common beans replaced up to 50% of the protein provided by soybean meal (Emiola et al., 2007a; Emiola et al., 2007b). Heat processed beans included at 20% of the diet replaced completely soybean and groundnut meal mixtures without loss of performance (Emiola et al., 2003), but with soybean meal in a maize-soybean based diet, complete replacement was not satisfactory (Arija et al., 2006). Common beans, boiled for 30 min under a uncontrolled temperature and pressure, could not satisfactorily replace meat meal and fishmeal at 11% of the diet for starters and at 14% for finisher broilers (Defang et al., 2008). Roasted beans gave poorer results than full-fat soybean seeds, soybean meal or cottonseed meal for boilers (Poné et al., 2004).

Vines

Dried and ground vines have been mentioned as a substitute for alfalfa in poultry rations (Göhl, 1982).

Rabbits 

Green vines

Green vines are very palatable for young rabbits (Harris et al., 1983). They are commonly used without any problem by local rabbit breeders, for example in Nigeria and Java (Carew et al., 1989Prawirodigdo, 1985).

Bean straw

Common bean straw was safely used as a fibre source in rabbit feeding up to 30-40% of complete diets (Gippert et al., 1988; Ferreira et al., 1997; Gomes et al., 1999). Due to the variability of composition of this product, the energy value has been shown to vary from less than 4 MJ/kg (Ferreira et al., 1997) to 9.6 MJ/kg (Gippert et al., 1988).

Beans

Common beans, either raw or toasted, are not palatable for rabbits. When offered to rabbits in free choice together with 3 other legume seeds (also raw or toasted), intake of the beans was less than 0.8% of the total daily intake, a much lower value than the intake of peas (33%), soybeans (28%) and faba beans (27%) (Johnston et al., 1989). A sharp decrease in live-weight gain (10 vs. 38.6 g/d) was observed when soybean meal was totally replaced by raw pinto beans in a balanced diet. Furthermore, diarrhoea was prevalent in rabbits fed the raw beans. Autoclaving improved growth rate, up to 20 g/d, and reduced the incidence of diarrhoea, but feed intake remained low (72.8 vs. 122.9 g/d for the control diet), and similar to that obtained with raw beans (Sanchez et al., 1983). The evidence suggests that raw or heat treated beans should not be recommended for feeding rabbits.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.1 1.9 84.5 92.7 51  
Crude protein % DM 24.8 1.5 22.2 27.4 54  
Crude fibre % DM 5.2 0.8 4.3 7.9 36  
NDF % DM 20.0 4.4 16.1 25.8 6  
ADF % DM 7.6 1.5 4.8 9.9 8  
Lignin % DM 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.3 4  
Ether extract % DM 1.7 0.4 1.1 2.4 43  
Ash % DM 4.6 0.6 4.0 6.5 43  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 42.7 2.3 38.5 46.9 20  
Total sugars % DM 4.9 0.7 3.1 5.7 18  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.6         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 2.5 1.1 1.2 5.1 18  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.9 1.1 2.1 6.3 18  
Potassium g/kg DM 16.9 1.5 15.4 19.2 5  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 4  
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.2 0.4 1.8 2.8 6  
Manganese mg/kg DM 16       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 36       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 9       1  
Iron mg/kg DM 89       1  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.0 0.7 3.0 5.3 11  
Arginine % protein 6.4 1.2 4.9 9.2 13  
Aspartic acid % protein 10.7 1.9 8.0 14.7 10  
Cystine % protein 1.1 0.1 1.0 1.2 5  
Glutamic acid % protein 14.8 2.8 9.7 18.8 10  
Glycine % protein 3.9 0.8 3.1 5.6 12  
Histidine % protein 2.8 0.3 2.1 3.4 12  
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 0.9 2.8 5.9 13  
Leucine % protein 7.8 1.3 5.5 10.0 13  
Lysine % protein 6.5 1.3 4.0 8.4 13  
Methionine % protein 1.1 0.4 0.3 1.7 9  
Phenylalanine % protein 5.4 1.0 3.6 7.1 13  
Proline % protein 3.5 1.0 2.1 5.1 7  
Serine % protein 5.5 0.9 4.4 7.2 11  
Threonine % protein 4.2 0.8 3.2 5.9 13  
Tryptophan % protein 1.3 0.2 1.1 1.7 7  
Tyrosine % protein 3.4 0.5 2.7 4.2 12  
Valine % protein 5.0 0.9 3.4 6.7 13  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 92.3         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 90.6         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.8         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 87.2       1  
a (N) % 43.9   33.2 54.6 2  
b (N) % 56.0   45.2 66.9 2  
c (N) h-1 0.092   0.091 0.093 2  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 83         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 78         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Antoine, 2009; Arija et al., 2006; CIRAD, 2008; De Groot et al., 1960; Emiola et al., 2007; Grela et al., 1995; Huisman et al., 1990; Huisman et al., 1990; Jagadi et al., 1987; Jongbloed et al., 1990; Marcondes et al., 2009; Martinez et al., 2004; Ologhobo, 1992; Paduano et al., 1995; Patterson et al., 1999; Pozy et al., 1996; Sosulki et al., 1990; Van der Poel et al., 1990; Vargas et al., 1965; Walker, 1975; Wyckoff et al., 1983

Last updated on 09/09/2013 01:27:55

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 88.0 4.1 81.2 94.4 8  
Crude protein % DM 7.1 1.8 4.8 10.7 13  
Crude fibre % DM 41.0 2.9 38.1 45.2 6  
NDF % DM 69.7 12.3 51.1 86.4 7  
ADF % DM 48.5 7.8 37.3 56.9 8  
Lignin % DM 8.0 1.4 5.4 9.3 6  
Ether extract % DM 1.1 0.5 0.7 1.8 6  
Ash % DM 8.9 1.4 7.2 12.1 13  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 9.0 2.4 6.8 11.5 3  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.1 0.2 0.9 1.3 3  
Potassium g/kg DM 23.5   18.0 29.0 2  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 54.7 5.5 47.7 60.2 4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 51.1         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.2         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.4         *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 7.6   7.3 8.0 2  
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 38.8 14.4 26.6 54.7 3  
               
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 65.9         *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 11.8       1  
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 69.5       1  
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 11.5         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Ait Amar, 2005; Alibes et al., 1990; Aredo et al., 2003; Ayoade et al., 1983; Gippert et al., 1988; Grimit, 1984; Lopez et al., 2001; Lopez et al., 2005; Nsahlai et al., 1996; Shem et al., 1999; Vargas et al., 1965

Last updated on 09/09/2013 01:30:03

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Nozière P., Lebas F., 2015. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/266 Last updated on October 20, 2015, 14:50

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)