Camelina oil meal
Camelina oil meal has a high protein and oil content, but, due to its high fibre content and the presence of antinutritional factors and non-starch polysaccharides, it has a low digestibility and a low ME/GE ratio in poultry (Acamovic et al., 1999). The inclusion of camelina oil meal up to 15% depressed feed intake, weight gain and feed conversion in most studies (Aronen et al., 2009; Pekel et al., 2009; Ryhanen et al., 2007; Thacker et al., 2012), except one, where the inclusion of camelina oil meal at 5 or 10% over 6 weeks had no effect on body weight gain, carcass weight and feed efficiency (Aziza et al., 2010b). The addition of copper to a camelina oil meal-based diet (10%) improved body weight gain and carcass characteristics (Pekel et al., 2009). Feeding camelina oil meal was reported to decrease mortality in broilers (Aronen et al., 2009). Broilers fed camelina oil meal had no lesions in livers, and the activity of the thyroid gland remained unchanged (Ryhanen et al., 2007).
Due to its high oil and PUFA content, camelina oil meal has valuable effects on broiler meat characteristics (Cherian, 2012). It can be used to improve the fatty acid profile of poultry meat by increasing the percentage of α-linolenic acid and longer n-3 fatty acids, such as 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3, and decreasing the n-6/n-3 ratio (Cherian, 2012; Thacker et al., 2012; Aziza et al., 2010a; Aronen et al., 2009).
Feeding broilers with camelina oil meal had no effect on the sensory quality of meat. It inhibited lipid oxidation and enhanced antioxidant capacity in meat (mainly thigh) during short or long term storage and during cooking (Aronen et al., 2009; Aziza et al., 2010b). Meat from female broilers fed 5% camelina oil meal was significantly more tender than meat produced by feeding 10% camelina oil meal (Ryhanen et al., 2007).
Camelina seeds included at 10% of the diet (DM basis) for organically produced broilers as a replacement for full-fat soybeans decreased final live-weight and carcass fat, but had no effect on animal survival (Ciurescu et al., 2007). Extruded camelina seeds included at 5 or 10% in broiler diets did not impair performance (live weight, feed utilization and carcass quality) (Jaskiewicz et al., 2003).
Camelina oil meal could be included only to a maximum of 5% in the diets of turkey poults with positive economic results. However, camelina oil replaced other vegetable oils without hampering weight gain and feed conversion ratio (Frame et al., 2007).
Camelina oil meal
Adding camelina oil meal to diets for laying hens gave inconsistent results. It slightly reduced feed intake with no effect on egg production and feed conversion ratio in some trials, but in others it resulted in lower egg production, lower yolk weight and lower total fat content in the eggs (Aronen et al., 2009; Cherian et al., 2009; Valkonen et al., 2006).
The effect of including camelina oil meal on the quality and fatty acid profile of eggs is generally positive. Increasing camelina oil meal in layer diets resulted in higher concentrations of n-3 fatty acids in the yolk and a decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio (Cherian, 2012; Aronen et al., 2009; Cherian et al., 2009). For example n-3 fatty acids were 8-fold, 8.5-fold and 9-fold at 5%, 10% and 15% camelina oil meal, respectively, compared with the control diet. An 8-fold increase in 22:6n-3 (DHA) was observed at 15% camelina oil meal inclusion when compared with the control. The n-6/n-3 ratios were significantly reduced from 14.8 with the control diet to 5.6, 4.6 and 4.3 at 5%, 10% and 15% inclusion of camelina oil meal, respectively, which are desirable ratios for human health (Cherian et al., 2009; Valkonen et al., 2006).
No systematic effect on sensory quality of eggs were observed in 2 out of 3 experiments (Aronen et al., 2009; Valkonen et al., 2006). However, camelina oil meal may negatively affect the quality of egg lipids (higher oxidization) when included above 10% (Cherian et al., 2009).