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Barley distillery by-products

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 
  • Malt distillers grain, malt distillers grains, malt distiller's grain, draff
  • Barley dark grains, malt distillers dark grains, barley distillers dark grains, dried dark grains
  • Barley distillers grain, barley distillers grains

Distillers can also be written Distillers' and Distiller's.

Description 

The production of alcohol from barley grains results in different by-products depending on the process.

Whisky by-products

A major source of barley distillery by-products is the production of malt whisky, which is usually based on malted barley (some malt whisky is also based on rye) (Russell et al., 2014). The production of grain whisky may use malted barley together with non-malted grains (maize, wheat, rye...), yielding by-products containing up to 15% barley residues (which are beyond the scope of this datasheet) (Miller, 1969Gizzi et al., 2001). The quality of barley distillery by-products depends on the malting and extraction process that the malt undergoes in the distillery. The general process is as follows:

  • Germination: enzymes reduce starch into soluble and fermentable sugars
  • Kilning: the germinated grain is dried and converted into malt
  • Mashing: the ground malt is immersed in hot water and then filtered so that soluble sugars are extracted, yielding a sugar-rich liquid (wort)
  • The wort is cooled and distilled, which yields alcohol. A liquid by-product, the pot ale, is evaporated to produce pot ale syrup.

Malt whisky production yields several by-products used in animal feeding:

  • Malt distillers, also called draff, are the wet residues of malted barley after mashing. Unlike maize or wheat distillers resulting from the production of grain whisky or fuel ethanol, malt distillers are produced before distillation and are, therefore, comparable to brewer's grain. This wet product is sold directly from the distilleries to the farms or mixed with other by-products at a later stage. Excess draff that is not consumed by livestock is ensiled, often with grass, during the summer for the following winter (Miller, 1969Bell et al., 2012).
  • Pot ale syrup is the concentrated liquid residue of distillation. It contains yeast, yeast residue, soluble proteins and carbohydrates. It is a medium to dark brown viscous syrup that resembles molasses. This protein-rich feed was widely used on its own, but, since the 1960s, it is generally mixed with malt distillers (Crawshaw, 2004).
  • Malt distillers dark grains, also called barley dark grains, are obtained by mixing draff and pot ale syrup and then drying and pelleting the mix. They have a variable composition, but are typically richer in protein than the draff due to the addition of the pot ale syrup. In the United Kingdom, drying plants mix materials from different distilleries (Crawshaw, 2004).

Draff has a long history in animal feeding and was fed to cattle in Scotland in the late 18th century (Russell et al., 2014). While fresh products (draff and pot ale syrup) are still widely used, dark grains are now the main form in which the by-products of malt distilleries are sold (Crawshaw, 2004). However, the increase in drying costs has caused a renewed interest in marketing wet distillers grains as in the past (McKendrick et al., 2003).

Ethanol by-products

Barley distillers from fuel ethanol production follow the same process as other grains. The ground grains are mixed with water and enzymes (amylases) to produce a mash where starch hydrolysis occurs (liquefaction stage). Enzymes are added to the mash to transform starch into dextrose (saccharification stage). After saccharification, yeast is added to start the fermentation process, which produces a "beer" and CO2. The beer passes through a continuous distillation column to yield alcohol at the top of the column. The product that remains at the bottom (whole stillage) is centrifuged and yields wet grains and thin stillage. Wet grains may be fed to livestock directly or they can be dried to produce dried distillers grain. Thin stillage can be sold as high-moisture feed or it can be dehydrated to produce condensed distillers solubles. Condensed distillers solubles and distillers grain are often blended together to prepare wet or dried distillers grain and solubles (WDGS or DDGS) (Mosier et al., 2006).

However, while maize and wheat grains are commonly used as ethanol feedstocks, the use of barley in ethanol production has been limited due to its low starch and high fibre contents (which causes flow problems), the abrasive nature of its hull (high silica content), and to the presence of β-glucans (which increase the viscosity of the mash) (Hicks et al., 2005). Experiments with enzyme addition, hull and bran removal before fermentation and high-starch varieties have demonstrated that barley could be more widely used as a potential substrate for ethanol. Scientific literature on barley distillers often refer to blends or to experimental products (Kalscheur et al., 2012).

Note: the nomenclature of barley distillery by-products is complex and often confusing. The product named malt distillers does not include the syrup resulting from distillation, unlike distillers obtained from distillery processes based on non-malted grains. In this datasheet, draff is used as a synonym for malt distillers but it is also the name used for the corresponding by-product in the brewing process. When reading the scientific literature, the reader should be aware that barley distillers grain may refer either to malt distillers or to barley distillers from ethanol production.

Distribution 

Whisky by-products

Barley malt distillers, pot ale syrup and dark grains are available in areas where malt whisky is produced from malted barley, and notably Scotland and Ireland, where barley is used almost exclusively. Malt whisky from elsewhere (United States, Japan, India) may use other grains, often rye (Russell et al., 2014).

Ethanol by-products

In the USA, the first commercial plant to make fuel-grade ethanol from barley was supposed to open in 2011, but the owner closed the plant before it started production. The plant reopened in 2014, but uses maize as the feedstock (Burke, 2012; Peacemaker, 2014). Barley has been used as a sole source for ethanol production since the 1990s, particularly in Spain and Finland. However, at the time of writing, barley is still a minor feedstock for ethanol production, used mostly in Europe and in the USA, and is always blended with other cereals (Kalscheur et al., 2012). Distillers grains resulting exclusively from barley-based ethanol production are, therefore, uncommon.

Processes 

Ensiling fresh malt distillers

Fresh malt distillers are often ensiled for later use. This product is relatively acidic and is ensiled easily. However, ensiling draff with dry sugar beet pulp has been shown to reduce effluent loss. For example, a silage made of draff and 150 kg/t of dried molassed sugar beet pulp lost 6% DM vs. 13% for a draff-only silage (Crawshaw, 2004).

Drying malt distillers in tropical climates

Fresh malt distillers produced in tropical countries have a short shelf life (3-7 days). In India, this product was preserved safely by sun-drying for 18-24 h, particularly when malt distillers were mixed with cassava waste ("cassava thippi"). Treatment with 2% propionic acid was effective for short-term preservation (7 days) (Geetha et al., 2009).

Pot ale syrup

Pot ale syrup has a low pH of about 3.5 and is usually stable, but poor sterilisation, due to low evaporation temperatures, may lead to microbial degradation and gas production. Propionic acid is sometimes added to stabilise the product (Crawshaw, 2004).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Draff

Draff contains about 70-80% water. It is rich in protein (17-23% DM), has a high fibre content (NDF more than 60% DM) and a relatively high oil content (more than 8% DM). It is low in starch and sugars. During mashing, many soluble minerals, notably sodium, magnesium and potassium are extracted from the grain, resulting in a by-product that is mineral deficient and needing supplementation when it is used in large quantities in ruminant diets (Crawshaw, 2004).

Pot ale syrup

Pot ale syrup is a viscous product containing about 30-50% DM. Its protein content is rather high (34-38% DM). It has low concentrations of fibre, oil, starch and fermentable sugars, but is rich in non-fermentable complex sugars from the cell walls of barley and yeast. It contains large amounts of lactic acid (10% DM) and ash (9-11% DM). The latter includes a substantial amount of phosphorus (1.6-2.2 g/kg DM), with possibly a very low proportion (5%) of phytate phosphorus due to the presence of phytase in malted barley and yeast (Crawshaw, 2004).

Malt distillers dark grains

Malt distillers dark grains are of better nutritional quality than draff, as they contain more protein (24-31% DM) and less fibre, though their NDF content can be in excess of 40% DM (Crawshaw, 2004).

Barley distillers from ethanol production

The lack of homogeneity in the fermentation and distillery processes results in high variability in barley distillers composition, particularly for protein (15 to 32% DM) and fibre (NDF 38 to 79% DM) (Kalscheur et al., 2012). Pilot ethanol plants have also produced high-protein (50% DM) barley distillers (Valaja et al., 1995). In a comparison of barley distillers produced in a pilot ethanol plant, distillers from hull-less varieties contained 35-36% protein vs. 24% for distillers from hulled varieties (Ingledew et al., 1995).

Potential constraints 

Copper toxicity in whisky by-products

Some traditional whisky distilleries use copper stills and pipework (rather than stainless steel ones), and their by-products tend to contain high levels of Cu. Pot ale syrup and dark grains contain about 80-120 mg/kg and 40-60 mg/kg DM of Cu, respectively. Draff is relatively low in Cu (12-18 mg/kg), since it is produced before distillation (Lewis, 2002). A trial compared Cu availability in sheep (estimated by measuring liver accumulation) of copper sulphate, pot ale syrup, wheat dark grains and barley dark grains. Copper availability in dark grains was similar to that of copper sulphate (5-6%) while copper from pot ale syrup was found to be much less bioavailable (1%) (Sutter et al., 1996). This may explain why, in spite of its high copper content, pot ale syrup has been fed to sheep in relatively large amounts without apparent problems of toxicity (Lewis, 2002; Crawshaw, 2004).

Generally, malt whisky by-products can be fed to cattle, though there has been a report of lethal Cu toxicity in calves that were fed pot ale syrup at a rate of 5 litres/head/day (Sargison et al., 1996). Malt whisky by-products may be used for non-susceptible breeds of sheep, but not for indoor-fed sheep or for prolonged periods. It is preferable to check the Cu levels of those products and to blend copper-rich materials in the diet with those low in Cu (Lewis, 2002; Crawshaw, 2004).

Copper is not an issue in industrial ethanol production.

Ruminants 

Malt whisky by-products

Fresh malt distillers, pot ale syrup and dried dark grains are traditionally fed to ruminants in Scotland and Ireland, though the dried grains have become more common (Crawshaw, 2004).

Draff

Draff has a moderate OM digestibility of about 50-54% due to its large concentration of fibre. Its energy value is disputed, with reported ME values in the 9-12 MJ/kg DM range (Crawshaw, 2004).

Draff is fed fresh to ruminants, or ensiled for later use. Because it contains only small amounts of available carbohydrates, draff has little effect on rumen acidity and can been fed ad libitum to cattle and sheep, though higher performance can be expected when draff is fed with an energy source such as cereals. A maximum inclusion rate of 30% in the diet DM is recommended (Crawshaw, 2004). The addition of minerals is generally beneficial for livestock consuming draff-based diets. They increased intake in sheep fed a draff-only diet at maintenance level (Crawshaw, 2004). Mineral supplementation with calcium or magnesium salts was found to increase diet digestibility, possibly due to interactions between the minerals and the relatively high fat content of the draff (El Hag et al., 1969El Hag et al., 1972).

In Scotland, mixtures of draff and molassed beet pulp have given good results in dairy cows, beef cattle and lambs (Crawshaw, 2004). In dairy cows giving moderate yields, ensiled mixtures of draff and molassed sugar beet pulp replaced up to 5 kg/d (DM basis) of a cereal-based concentrate without affecting performance. This ensiled draff and molassed sugar beet pulp mixed with straw replaced grass silage in the diet of mid-lactation cows (McKendrick et al., 2003). Draff (supplemented with minerals) replaced barley/soybean meal in silage-based complete diets up to 30% of the DM (25 kg/d fresh basis) without any adverse effects on either intake or milk production (Hyslop et al., 1989). In beef cattle, weight gains higher than 1 kg/d have been reported in animals fed only draff supplemented with minerals. Beef cows have also been fed a diet consisting of 15 kg draff and 8 kg straw (plus vitamin and minerals) (Crawshaw, 2004).

In Scotland, a trial with lambs and sheep resulted in mixed results. Feeding pregnant ewes with mineralised draff as a sole feed resulted in cases of vaginal prolapse. Unrestricted access to draff caused dietary problems, and over-fat ewes that required increased assistance at lambing. The recommended maximum was 1 kg/d of draff per 25 kg live weight together with barley in the last 4 weeks of pregnancy, with regular attention to ewe condition and good management at lambing. In finishing lambs, mineralised draff used as the sole feed resulted in poor growth. The optimum use of draff for finishing lamb was offering it at a rate of 1 kg/d per 10 kg live weight, supplemented with 0.3 kg cereals per day plus minerals. Where draff was used in place of concentrates as a supplement to silage, the high NDF content led to reduced silage intake and live weight gain, resulting in a feed efficient but slow finishing system (Vipond et al., 1995).

Pot ale syrup

Pot ale syrup is very palatable and highly digestible to ruminants, with an in vivo OM digestibility between 89 and 93%. Estimated ME values for ruminants range from 14.2 to 15.6 MJ/kg DM. Pot ale syrup is used to feed ruminants in a variety of ways. It is poured on hay or straw, distributed in lick feeders or incorporated in complete diets. Pot ale syrup has been reported to contain a factor, possibly linked to yeast, that stimulates cellulolytic bacteria and thus the digestibility of roughages (Crawshaw, 2004). In Scotland, experiments with growing steers (200 kg) and heifers (350 kg) showed that moderate amounts (up to 2 kg/day) of pot ale syrup maintained or enhanced performance (Topps et al., 1979).

Malt distillers dark grains

Malt distillers dark grains have an OM digestibility of 65-69% and an ME value of 12-13 MJ/kg DM (Gizzi et al., 2001). The protein value for ruminants of malt distillers dark grains is disputed, since the draff contains insoluble protein while pot ale syrup contains soluble protein. A maximum inclusion rate of 35% in the diet DM is recommended (Crawshaw, 2004). In dairy cows fed silage and a conventional compound feed, malt distillers dark grains replaced 7 kg of the compound feed, resulting in an increase in milk yield and milk protein, and in a slight decrease in milk fat content (McKendrick et al., 1992).

Ethanol by-products

The in situ DM degradability of distillers grains containing 70% barley was lower than that of wheat distillers grains (44 vs. 52%). In situ protein digestibility was only slightly lower (62 vs. 65%) but the soluble fraction was much lower for barley distillers, due to a higher acid detergent insoluble protein content, which may reduce the quality of the undegraded fraction (Mustafa et al., 2000a). A comparison between laboratory-made wet barley, wheat and maize distillers grains concluded that barley distillers were of lower nutritional value for ruminants than distillers from other grains, as they had lower in situ degradability values for DM, crude protein and NDF (Mustafa et al., 2000b).

Dairy cows

In the USA, dried barley distillers grain produced from a mix of 65% barley and 35% maize were fed to dairy cows as a protein supplement (12.5% or 4.5% of diet DM). There was no effect on milk production, milk fat or DM intake, but milk protein decreased. Dried distillers grains were then judged an acceptable protein source for dairy cows (Weiss et al., 1989). In Finland, in dairy cows fed grass silage and a cereal-based concentrate, the replacement of part of the concentrate by 1.5 kg/d of dried barley distillers had no effect on dairy performance but milk and milk protein yield increased when the distillers grain was treated with formaldehyde. Treated distillers grains gave results similar to those obtained using rapeseed meal as a protein supplement (Huhtanen et al., 1991).

Beef cattle

In the USA, a comparison of barley distillers grains and soybean meal in isonitrogenous backgrounding and finishing rations showed no difference in backgrounding calf performance in either steers or heifers. However, steer calves fed soybean meal gained weight more rapidly and it was concluded that soybean meal should be preferred when gains greater than 1.4 kg/d were required. In backgrounding heifer calves, soybean meal and barley distillers were found to be interchangeable on a protein basis, with a slight advantage for barley distillers in terms of feed efficiency (Landblom et al., 1988).

Pigs 

Malt whisky by-products

Draff and dark grains are not ideally suited for pig feeding due to their low lysine and high fibre content. Pot ale syrup was tested successfully in Scotland, where it was shown that it could replace up to 30% (DM basis) of a barley/soybean meal diet without affecting pig performance (Crawshaw, 2004).

Ethanol by-products

Information on the use of barley distillery by-products, from ethanol production, is scarce for pigs. These products were investigated in Finland in the 1980-1990s and the overall conclusion was that barley distillers had a low lysine content and a high fibre content that made them unsuitable for pig diets. The large variations in composition were also problematic in diet formulation. These products could be valuable only when adequately supplemented with lysine and after removal of fibre (Valaja et al., 1995).

Growing pigs (25 to 105 kg) were fed isonitrogenous and lysine-supplemented diets in which part of the soybean meal was replaced by wet barley distillers solids, a by-product containing 50% protein (DM basis). Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio remained the same when 33% of soybean meal was replaced by barley distillers, but both decreased linearly when higher amounts of barley distillers were added to the diets. The content of lean meat decreased as barley distillers content increased, but no differences in organoleptic evaluation were found. Inclusion of barley distillers was possible up to 10% DM (Valaja et al., 1995).

Poultry 

Ethanol by-products

Literature on the use of barley distillery by-products in poultry is limited. In Sweden, barley distillers grains, with or without prior dehulling, obtained from a pilot ethanol facility were fed to broilers at 20% of the diet (replacing wheat grain) with or without β-glucanase, without significantly affecting growth rate. The highly viscous dehulled barley distillers did not significantly decrease the nutritional value, but as a precaution, the addition of β-glucanase seemed appropriate to decrease diet viscosity (Pettersson et al., 1987).

Rabbits 

Ethanol by-products

A comparison of barley, wheat and maize distillers, produced by Spanish ethanol plants, fed in isoenergetic, isoproteic and isofibrous diets supplemented with amino acids, indicated that up to 20% distillers, independent of the grain source (barley, wheat or maize), could be included in balanced diets for growing rabbits. However, rabbits receiving the diet with 20% of barley distillers had a lower weight gain and feed efficiency than the diets based on wheat or maize distillers, which could be explained by the higher lignin content and reduced digestibility of the amino acids of barley distillers (Alagon et al., 2014).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 24.1 1.2 22.0 26.8 17  
Crude protein % DM 20.3 1.4 17.8 23.5 17  
Crude fibre % DM 17.6 1.2 16.3 20.7 14  
NDF % DM 65.1 3.0 61.8 68.9 4  
ADF % DM 26.4 1.2 24.7 27.4 4  
Lignin % DM 5.9 0.9 5.1 6.8 3  
Ether extract % DM 8.2 0.4 7.6 8.9 15  
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 11.1   10.9 11.2 2  
Ash % DM 3.3 0.3 2.4 3.8 17  
Starch (enzymatic) % DM 1.8   1.4 2.1 2  
Total sugars % DM 0.5   0.4 0.6 2  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.5   21.4 21.6 2 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 1.2 0.3 0.4 1.4 15  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.3 0.6 1.5 4.0 16  
Potassium g/kg DM 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.6 15  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.8 16  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.2 0.3 0.8 1.8 16  
Manganese mg/kg DM 41   39 43 2  
Zinc mg/kg DM 188   80 295 2  
Copper mg/kg DM 15 4 11 18 3  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 51.7   49.8 53.6 2  
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 51.7   51.7 56.7 2 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.1         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.9   8.9 10.8 2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 73.9   73.0 74.8 2  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Miller, 1969; Vipond et al., 1995; Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 06/11/2014 17:20:09

By-product of malt whisky production, obtained by mixing and then drying malt distillers (draff) with pot ale syrup

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 90.7 1.9 88.1 92.9 8  
Crude protein % DM 27.8 2.1 24.3 31.1 11  
Crude fibre % DM 11.6 1.7 8.0 13.7 12  
NDF % DM 39.7 8.9 23.2 49.0 9  
ADF % DM 15.5 2.5 11.6 18.8 8  
Lignin % DM 3.8 1.3 2.4 6.3 8  
Ether extract % DM 8.5 2.7 5.5 13.0 11  
Ash % DM 5.8 0.6 4.4 6.8 11  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 3.2 0.6 2.4 3.8 6  
Total sugars % DM 4.3 3.0 1.7 11.0 9  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.3 0.6 20.8 22.5 9 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 1.6 0.5 0.4 2.2 9  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 9.7 0.9 8.3 11.1 9  
Potassium g/kg DM 10.5 0.9 9.4 12.0 9  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.3 0.1 1.0 7  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.3 0.4 2.7 4.0 9  
Manganese mg/kg DM 33 5 21 36 9  
Zinc mg/kg DM 57 6 48 68 9  
Copper mg/kg DM 49 22 7 85 9  
Iron mg/kg DM 231 36 189 276 5  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 5.7 0.3 5.4 6.2 5  
Arginine % protein 4.2 0.2 3.9 4.4 5  
Aspartic acid % protein 6.7 0.5 5.9 7.0 5  
Cystine % protein 1.8 0.1 1.5 1.9 5  
Glutamic acid % protein 17.1 1.9 15.4 20.4 5  
Glycine % protein 4.3 0.4 3.7 4.6 5  
Histidine % protein 2.7 0.2 2.5 3.0 5  
Isoleucine % protein 3.9 0.2 3.6 4.0 5  
Leucine % protein 7.1 0.9 6.4 8.8 5  
Lysine % protein 4.3 0.3 4.0 4.8 4  
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.2 1.3 1.7 5  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 0.4 4.2 5.3 5  
Proline % protein 9.3 0.4 8.7 9.7 5  
Serine % protein 4.0 0.1 3.9 4.2 5  
Threonine % protein 3.7 0.1 3.5 3.9 5  
Tyrosine % protein 3.0 0.3 2.6 3.5 5  
Valine % protein 5.2 0.1 5.1 5.4 5  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 71.2 4.9 64.8 75.1 4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 70.9 4.7 66.8 76.3 4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.1         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.0 1.5 12.0 15.3 4 *
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 72.0         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.3         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.4         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.8         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 9.6 0.6 8.8 10.2 4  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1988; AFZ, 2011; De Boever et al., 1988; Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 05/11/2014 17:48:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 91.3 2.3 87.5 94.3 6  
Crude protein % DM 28.2 3.7 21.0 34.3 10  
Crude fibre % DM 13.8 2.9 10.1 16.1 5  
NDF % DM 60.1 15.3 40.1 73.7 4  
ADF % DM 23.8 9.5 12.9 33.9 4  
Lignin % DM 5.1   0.9 9.3 2  
Ether extract % DM 7.5 2.1 4.2 10.2 6  
Ash % DM 5.4 1.7 3.9 8.4 6  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 0.9       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.2 1.8 18.5 21.8 3 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 2.0 1.1 0.7 3.3 4  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.5 1.4 5.1 8.0 4  
Potassium g/kg DM 7.6       1  
Sodium g/kg DM 2.4       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.6       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 38       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 67       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 18       1  
Iron mg/kg DM 196       1  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.4 0.2 4.1 4.5 4  
Arginine % protein 5.1 1.3 3.3 6.3 4  
Aspartic acid % protein 5.9 0.8 4.9 6.6 4  
Cystine % protein 1.6   1.5 1.6 2  
Glutamic acid % protein 21.8 3.0 18.0 24.4 4  
Glycine % protein 4.0 0.6 3.3 4.7 4  
Histidine % protein 2.0 0.6 1.1 2.4 4  
Isoleucine % protein 3.7 0.6 2.9 4.1 4  
Leucine % protein 7.5 0.2 7.3 7.8 4  
Lysine % protein 2.5 1.2 1.4 3.8 4  
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.4 1.0 1.7 3  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.8 0.6 4.0 5.5 4  
Proline % protein 9.4   8.0 10.7 2  
Serine % protein 4.5 0.5 4.0 5.0 4  
Threonine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.4 3.9 4  
Tyrosine % protein 3.0 0.6 2.5 3.8 4  
Valine % protein 5.3 1.1 3.8 6.5 4  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 66.9         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 67.0         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.2         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.3         *
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 68.4         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.5         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.0         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 13.7       1  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Alagón, 2013; Ingledew et al., 1995; Kiiskinen, 1992; Krishna, 1985; Näsi, 1984; Pettersson et al., 1987; Weiss et al., 1989

Last updated on 05/11/2014 17:58:34

Syrupy by-product of malt whisky distillery

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 48.3       1  
Crude protein % DM 37.4       1  
Crude fibre % DM 0.2       1  
NDF % DM 0.6       1  
ADF % DM 0.7       1  
Lignin % DM 1.5       1  
Ether extract % DM 0.2       1  
Ash % DM 9.5       1  
Total sugars % DM 2.3       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.0       1  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 20.1       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 19.0       1  
Potassium g/kg DM 22.3       1  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.9       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.4       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 35       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 22       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 95       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 89.0       1  
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 88.9       1  
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 17.8         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.4       1  
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 78.4       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 89.8         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 18.0         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Wainman et al., 1984

Last updated on 06/11/2014 17:03:14

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2016. Barley distillery by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/4266 Last updated on November 7, 2016, 14:41

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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