Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Wood pulping by-products

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Wood pulping by-products, screen rejects, ray cells, vessel fines, cleaner fines, lignin sulphonates

Species 
Description 

The types of by-products vary from one pulp mill to another. Many of these by-products would undoubtedly have value as animal feed, but this aspect has been poorly investigated so far.

  • Screen rejects, which are partially pulped but not bleached, have a dry matter digestibility of 44%.
  • The ray cell and vessel fines, also a partially pulped by-product, have a dry matter digestibility of 72%.
  • Centrifugal cleaner fines are a fully pulped and bleached by-product with the same digestibility as the cellulose.
  • The by-product from mills producing synthetic fibre from wood is rich in digestible hemicellulose and has been used experimentally in sheep rations without any obvious harmful effects in amounts of up to 0.6 kg per day.
  • Lignin sulphonates are produced by concentrating sulphite pulping liquors until they contain 50-55% solids, after which they are handled like molasses or are spray-dried.
  • Ammonium, calcium, magnesium or sodium sulphonates can be produced, but the ammonium lignin sulphonates are probably the most important as they are a good source of both crude protein and energy. Commercially, they are mixed with molasses for use as a binding and pelleting agent or for feeding as a low-level energy source.
Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 91.8 1.2 90.6 93.0 4
Crude fibre % DM 74.0 3.9 68.3 76.1 4
NDF % DM 96.9 0.7 96.3 97.9 4
ADF % DM 79.4 3.8 74.6 83.9 4
Lignin % DM 23.8 7.4 12.7 28.8 4
Ash % DM 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.5 4
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Potassium g/kg DM 0.8 1
Sodium g/kg DM 0.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 31.4 2.7 29.5 35.3 4
Crude protein % DM 2.0 0.4 1.7 2.5 4
Crude fibre % DM 68.5 4.7 62.3 73.8 4
ADF % DM 89.0 5.9 80.4 92.8 4
Lignin % DM 14.0 2.4 10.7 16.0 4
Ash % DM 5.2 0.9 4.4 6.2 4
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16.2 0.8 15.2 17.0 4
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.9 0.8 3.4 5.1 4
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 4

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Murdock et al., 1977

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:45:34

References
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/61 Last updated on June 30, 2010, 0:52

Image credits