Average DM yields range between 11 and 25 t/ha/year (Carvalho et al., 1996; Adjei et al., 1998; Wilson et al., 1977). Limpo grass responds positively to applications of N fertilizer, which enhances DM yield and decreases cell wall fibre content (Henriques et al., 2007). Application of 125 kg/ha N can increase yields from 10.5 to 17.5 t/ha DM, and at 480 kg/ha N, to nearly 30 t/ha DM (Cook et al., 2005).
Limpo grass can be sown with companion legumes such as Aeschynomene americana, Lotus pedunculatus, Vigna parkeri and Trifolium repens (Cook et al., 2005).
Limpo grass is highly stoloniferous and can make reserves within the lower parts of its culms, which enables it to withstand continuous grazing (Newman et al., 2005). Recommended grazing heights and regrowth intervals are not consistent among authors. They range from 5 cm stubble to 40 cm depending on season, environmental conditions, but also on the desired forage mass (higher the stubble higher the forage mass) and the type of grazing (rotational or continuous) (Newman et al., 2009a). However, since the leaves have more protein than the stems, it is recommended to promote leaf growth (Newman et al., 2002; Parra et al., 1974 cited by FAO, 2011). Limpo grass should be grazed to a stubble height of 25-30 cm or higher under rotational grazing and to a stubble height of 30-40 cm under continuous grazing. Continuous grazing of Hemarthria altissima pastures reduces weeds but production and persistence are higher under rotational grazing. It is therefore recommended to graze the stands continuously when weeds occur and restart rotational grazing once they have disappeared (Newman et al., 2009a; Newman et al., 2005).
In Florida, it was found that the digestibility of limpo grass remained constant when it was stockpiled for up to four months. After rotational grazing (never below 25 cm) during the summer, livestock is removed from limpo grass pasture in August or early September and the grass is allowed to stockpile growth until the end of December. It is then grazed off in a rotational system leaving the necessary 20-25 cm of stubble. Even if frost occurs, only the tops are killed and most of the grass remains green (Nation, 2006).
Limpo grass produces a valuable fragrant silage that stores particularly well. Harvest for ensiling should be done at 4-6 weeks of regrowth and no later than 6 weeks. Ammoniation may be useful for enhancing silage value if harvest occurs later or if the grass is rain damaged (Newman et al., 2009a). In Panama, satisfactory Hemarthria altissima silage has been made using plastic bags and adding 10% molasses to the grass (Medling, 1972 cited by FAO, 2011).
Hay can be made from limpo grass. It is recommended to crush the stems to facilitate quicker drying (Newman et al., 2009a).