Feedipedia
Animal feed resources information system
Feedipedia
Feedipedia

Sugar beet pulp

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Sugar beet, sugarbeet [English]; remolacha azucarera [Spanish]; betterave sucrière [French]; beterraba-sacarina [Portuguese]; suikerbeet, beetwortel [Afrikaans]; Sukkerroe [Danish]; suikerbiet [Dutch]; Zuckerrübe [German]; barbabietola da zucchero [Italian]; şeker pancarı [Turkish]; củ cải đường [Vietnamese]; شمندر سكري [Arabic]; 糖用甜菜 [Chinese]; סלק סוכר [Hebrew]; テンサイ [Japanese]; 사탕무 [Korean]; Сахарная свёкла [Russian]

Products: sugar beet pulp, sugarbeet pulp, dehydrated beet pulp, dehydrated sugar beet pulp, dehydrated sugarbeet pulp, wet sugar beet pulp, wet sugarbeet pulp

Related feed(s) 
Description 

In sugar production the beets are first shredded into cossettes, from which the juice is extracted. The juice is then processed like that of sugar cane, yielding sugar and beet molasses. The residue after juice extraction, known as wet sugar beet pulps is 10-15% dry matter. Its high water content, both from the point of view of transport and storage, limits its use to the vicinity of the sugar mill.
The wet pulp can be pressed to remove the excess water, thereby raising the dry matter content to 20%. Pressed pulp, though easier to transport, has the same poor keeping qualities. If heaped and covered to exclude air, it can be stored up to two weeks. For longer storage it should be ensiled. Most beet pulp is dried and sold as dried sugar beet pulp or mixed with molasses to form dried molasses beet pulp.

Nutritional aspects
Ruminants 

Dairy cows can be given up to 12 kg per day of fresh pulp and bullocks twice that amount.
As dried pulp readily absorb water and swell, it should be soaked in two or three times its weight of water, especially if large amounts are to be fed to horses or calves. The feeds are palatable, bulky and slightly laxative and have good keeping qualities. Dried beet pulp and molasses beet pulp are fed mostly to dairy cattle, for which they are very suitable. The crude fibre content is well digested by cattle. Up to 3.5 kg a day of dried beet pulp can be given to milking animals, and fattening cattle can make good use of up to 5.5 kg of dried pulp daily. Dried beet pulp may be fed in moderate amounts to calves from the age of about four months, a common daily allowance being 0.5 kg per head.

Pigs 

Pigs digest the fibre well, but the pulp is so bulky that total food consumption and weight gain will decrease if more than 0.5 kg a day is fed to fattening pigs. Sows can consume up to 1 kg daily without adverse effects, and the moist soaked pulp is relished once the pigs acquire a taste for it. Young pigs do not thrive on pulp.

Poultry 

Beet pulp has proved to be unsatisfactory for poultry.

Rabbits 

Dried sugar beet pulp is a by-product of the sugar industry long-time used in rabbit feeding, after soaking and incorporation in a mash (Leaver, 1934) or incorporated in a complete pelleted diet (Bruce et al., 1946). In commercial complete rabbit feeds currently used in Europe, the incorporation level varies generally between 8 and 20% (de Blas et al., 2010; Theau-Clément et al., 2016). In experimental diets, the incorporation level, around 11-16% on average, could be increased up to 50% without problem (Lebas et al., 2009; Lebas et al., 2013; Lebas et al., 2017). For some short term experiments, such as digestibility studies, beet pulp was used as the only feed without immediate health problem; but at this level, beet pulp failed to support the rabbit maintenance minimum requirements (Voris et al., 1940; Martinez-Pascual et al., 1980). In different studies devoted to the possibility of beet pulp utilisation in growing or reproducing rabbits, this raw material was used with success as a source of digestible energy to replace cereals in general (Skrivanova et al., 1996) or more specifically maize (Battaglini et al., 1978; El-Zeiny et al., 1998), wheat (Franck et al., 1980) or barley (Lebas et al., 1988; Cobos et al., 1995; Garcia et al., 1992). Beet pulp was also used as a source of fibre to replace dehydrated alfalfa (Carabano et al., 1997; Harris et al., 1980; Trocino et al., 1999; El-Adawy et al., 2000).

Sugar beet pulp is a potential feed ingredient for rabbits characterized by a relatively low protein content (average 9.3% of DM), similar to that of maize. Contrary to the protein of cereals, beet pulp proteins are deficient in sulphur-containing amino acids and relatively rich in lysine: respectively 75% and 125% of growing rabbit requirements (Lebas, 2013). Beet pulp carbohydrates are mainly the residual cell walls remaining after removing the sucrose of sugar beet root. As for quite all root products or by-products, the lignin level is low (2.5%) allowing a high digestibility of the different types of beet pulp fibre in the rabbit cæcum (Jehl et al., 1996). The NDF content represents about 48-50% of DM, but the total dietary fibre (TDF) content is largely higher: 68%, due to the presence of a high proportion of pectin (15-18%) and other soluble and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (de Blas et al., 1996; Gidenne, 2015). This part of the fibre (TDF minus NDF) is digested very efficiently in the cæcum (80-85%) and absorbed in form of volatile fatty acids, a situation favourable to the rabbit health (Peeters et al., 1995; Pascual et al., 2014). However, simultaneously the low digestible fraction of the diet must be sufficient, with a digestible fibre:ADF ratio not greater than 1.3 (Gidenne, 2015). As a consequence of the high digestibility of beet pulp fibrous content, the digestible energy of this by-product is of the same order than that of cereals. However, as illustrated in the following table, the digestible energy content varies from 9.4 to 14.2 MJ/kg DM between studies, resulting in an average of 12.05 MJ/kg DM. In seven of these studies, protein digestibility was simultaneously determined resulting also in a relatively wide variation from 44 to 74%. The average is 58.3%, a little lower than that of alfalfa.

Table 1: Digestible energy and nitrogen digestibility of sugar beet pulp according to different authors

Country Method % incorporation Digestible energy
(MJ/kg DM)
Nitrogen
digestibility (%)
Reference
USA Only feed 100% 14.3 48.3 Voris et al., 1940
Italy Formulation 32% 13.8 43.6 Battaglini et al., 1978
Spain Only feed 100% 14.2 62.7 Martinez-Pascual et al., 1980
France Subst. basal 20% 13.9 72.6 Lebas et al., 1981
Belgium Subst. basal 40% 12.3 44.7 Maertens et al., 1984
Hungary Subst. basal 40% 13.0 62 Fekete et al., 1986
Spain Subst. diet A 40% 12.4   de Blas et al., 1990
Spain Subst. diet B 40% 10.0   de Blas et al., 1990
Spain Subst. alfalfa 30% 12.5   Motta Ferreira, 1990
Spain Subst. alfalfa 10-30% 9.4   Carabaño et al., 1992
Spain Subst. barley - fibrous 15% 9.6   Garcia et al., 1992
Spain Subst. barley - fibrous 30% 10.2   Garcia et al., 1992
Spain Subst. barley - normal 50% 12.4   Garcia et al., 1993
Spain Subst. barley - normal 15% 10.6   Garcia et al., 1993
Spain Average 15-20% 10.5   de Blas et al., 1996
Greece Subst. basal 20% 12.5   Papadomichelakis et al., 2004
France Subst. basal 15-30% 13.3 74.4 Gidenne et al., 2007
Average N = 17/7     12.05 58.3  

From a practical point of view, sugar beet pulp may be used in balanced diets for rabbits at up to 20-25% without problems, as a source of digestible energy and fibre, provided that some other ingredients of the diet bring the low digestible fibre also necessary to the digestive heath of rabbits. In addition, it must be underlined that beet pulp has a very positive effect on pellet quality: it increased pellets durability by up to 98.9% while the reference diet had a durability of only 97.2% (Kaliyan et al., 2009).

Sugar beet pulp and molasses

Some studies were conducted to evaluate the possibility of using, with rabbits, a mixture containing sugar beet pulp and molasses, generally employed for beef or dairy cattle in Northern Europe (Jensen, 1992). Results of growth and feed efficiency with a mixture of beet pulp and 35% molasses incorporated in growing rabbit diets were 5 to 10% higher than those obtained with pure beet pulp at the same level (Jensen, 1992).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.2 1.3 84.3 93.0 7680
Crude protein % DM 9.3 0.9 7.4 13.3 6791
Crude fibre % DM 19.9 1.3 16.2 24.6 6808
NDF % DM 48.1 3.4 39.0 55.1 474 *
ADF % DM 24.1 1.2 20.9 26.9 418 *
Lignin % DM 2.4 0.8 1.2 4.5 522
Ether extract % DM 0.9 0.3 0.4 1.7 492
Ash % DM 7.7 1.6 3.9 14.5 7393
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 0.5 0.1 0.8 2
Total sugars % DM 7.6 2.5 1.4 14.3 3196
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.0 0.5 16.3 17.8 23 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 15.5 4.1 7.0 29.6 2257
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 0.2 0.5 1.7 1040
Potassium g/kg DM 4.5 2.2 1.5 12.3 1876
Sodium g/kg DM 0.7 0.9 0.2 8.2 121
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.9 0.5 1.4 2.9 32
Manganese mg/kg DM 79 16 56 109 22
Zinc mg/kg DM 20 7 12 33 23
Copper mg/kg DM 5 2 3 10 34
Iron mg/kg DM 625 213 330 1172 21
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.0 0.5 4.1 5.4 5
Arginine % protein 4.5 0.5 3.7 5.1 6
Aspartic acid % protein 7.4 1.1 5.7 8.3 5
Cystine % protein 1.4 0.3 1.1 1.8 5
Glutamic acid % protein 9.7 1.0 8.1 10.6 5
Glycine % protein 4.3 0.7 3.1 4.8 5
Histidine % protein 3.0 0.8 1.9 3.9 6
Isoleucine % protein 4.0 0.7 2.7 4.5 6
Leucine % protein 6.4 1.0 4.6 7.2 6
Lysine % protein 6.2 1.8 3.1 8.0 7
Methionine % protein 1.4 0.7 0.1 2.0 7
Phenylalanine % protein 3.8 0.8 2.8 4.6 6
Proline % protein 4.5 0.6 3.6 5.1 5
Serine % protein 5.3 0.5 4.5 5.7 5
Threonine % protein 4.5 0.7 3.2 5.1 6
Tryptophan % protein 1.0 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.8 0.8 3.4 5.6 6
Valine % protein 6.5 0.9 4.8 7.1 5
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 83.8 2.4 81.2 91.3 14 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 80.2 4.3 80.2 88.6 3 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 70.7 5.5 46.5 70.7 13 *
a (N) % 17.6 1
b (N) % 81.1 1
c (N) h-1 0.070 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 69 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 61 8 34 65 14 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 58.8 11.6 41.1 69.8 6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.0 2.1 7.0 12.9 7 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.4 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 5.9 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 49.2 15.5 3.0 49.2 4 *
 
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 73.9 *
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 12.6 1.3 11.2 13.7 3
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 12.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 59.2 8.5 47.1 66.8 4

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Alawa et al., 1986; Alibes et al., 1990; Arosemena et al., 1995; Aufrère et al., 1991; Bach Knudsen, 1997; Belibasakis, 1984; Bhatti et al., 1995; Bochi-Brum et al., 1999; Boucqué et al., 1976; Calabro et al., 2000; Carabaño et al., 1997; Champ et al., 1989; Chapoutot et al., 1990; Chapoutot et al., 1997; Chauvel et al., 1975; CIRAD, 1991; Cirad, 2008; Daghir, 1975; de Blas et al., 1990; De Boever et al., 1984; De Boever et al., 1988; De Boever et al., 1994; DePeters et al., 1997; Fadel, 1992; Fekete et al., 1986; Fernandez Carmona et al., 1996; Fraga et al., 1991; Franck et al., 1980; Friesecke, 1970; Getachew et al., 2004; Gippert et al., 1988; Hashizume et al., 1974; Hashizume et al., 1974; Huhtanen, 1988; Israelsen et al., 1978; Jentsch et al., 1989; Kandylis et al., 1986; Krishna, 1985; Longland et al., 1988; Macgregor et al., 1978; Madsen et al., 1984; Morgan et al., 1984; Murphy et al., 1993; Najar et al., 1990; Noblet et al., 1997; Noblet, 2001; Perez et al., 1984; Pettersson, 1994; Qiao ShiYan et al., 2004; Shi et al., 1993; Smolders et al., 1990; Steg et al., 1985; Storey et al., 1982; Sunvold et al., 1995; Swain et al., 1994; Tamminga et al., 1990; USICA, 1992; USICA, 1993; Vérité et al., 1990; Vérité, 1975; Vervaeke et al., 1989; Williams, 1955; Wolter et al., 1979; Woodman, 1945; Woods et al., 2003; Xiccato et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:45

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 88.3 1.5 85.4 90.9 90
Crude protein % DM 9.9 0.8 8.7 11.8 70
Crude fibre % DM 19.4 1.8 14.2 22.1 79
NDF % DM 47.5 4.3 29.2 47.5 10 *
ADF % DM 23.8 0.7 17.0 23.8 8 *
Lignin % DM 2.7 0.5 1.1 2.7 3 *
Ether extract % DM 0.7 0.4 0.3 2.0 14
Ash % DM 7.0 1.3 5.2 10.5 92
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 4.3 1
Total sugars % DM 10.1 2.1 6.5 15.0 75
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 0.7 14.8 17.1 9 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 10.0 2.6 7.0 17.0 72
Phosphorus g/kg DM 0.9 0.1 0.5 1.0 14
Potassium g/kg DM 12.9 5.8 3.1 20.5 16
Sodium g/kg DM 2.7 2.2 0.2 7.0 11
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.4 0.4 1.1 2.4 10
Manganese mg/kg DM 82 34 59 121 3
Zinc mg/kg DM 15 4 11 19 3
Copper mg/kg DM 4 1 3 5 3
Iron mg/kg DM 773 662 289 1528 3
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 4.3 1
Arginine % protein 3.0 1
Aspartic acid % protein 6.6 1
Cystine % protein 0.9 1
Glutamic acid % protein 16.7 1
Glycine % protein 3.6 1
Histidine % protein 2.0 1
Isoleucine % protein 3.4 1
Leucine % protein 5.1 1
Lysine % protein 4.3 1
Methionine % protein 0.9 1
Phenylalanine % protein 3.4 1
Proline % protein 3.3 1
Serine % protein 4.2 1
Threonine % protein 3.2 1
Tyrosine % protein 4.3 1
Valine % protein 5.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 84.3 1.6 84.3 91.3 7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 80.9 1.0 80.9 89.3 6 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.8 0.3 13.8 15.3 6 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.4 0.3 11.4 12.9 6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 71.6 5.0 58.3 73.6 7 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 45 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 59.6 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.2 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.6 *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 6.1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 52.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

ADAS, 1986; AFZ, 2011; Alawa et al., 1986; CIRAD, 1991; Huhtanen et al., 1988; Israelsen et al., 1978; Kendall et al., 1982; Longland et al., 1988; Pettersson, 1994; Susmel et al., 1989; USICA, 1992; USICA, 1993; Woodman, 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:45

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 24.1 1.8 19.2 27.8 89
Crude protein % DM 8.6 0.6 7.6 10.2 624
Crude fibre % DM 20.8 1.2 18.6 23.9 609
NDF % DM 49.3 3.2 48.4 55.7 5 *
ADF % DM 24.8 1.4 22.4 25.7 5 *
Lignin % DM 1.8 0.2 1.7 2.0 5
Ether extract % DM 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.8 7
Ether extract, HCl hydrolysis % DM 1.5 0.2 1.3 1.8 4
Ash % DM 6.8 1.3 4.7 10.4 690
Total sugars % DM 5.1 1.9 1.2 9.5 599
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 12.8 1.9 9.0 17.0 609
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.1 0.2 0.9 1.5 12
Potassium g/kg DM 4.2 0.9 2.4 5.6 12
Sodium g/kg DM 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.9 10
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 0.3 1.2 1.9 10
Manganese mg/kg DM 69 10 52 85 10
Zinc mg/kg DM 17 4 13 26 10
Copper mg/kg DM 4 1 3 7 10
Iron mg/kg DM 483 165 221 767 10
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 5.0 0.2 4.5 5.3 9
Arginine % protein 4.3 0.6 3.6 5.1 9
Aspartic acid % protein 8.0 0.2 7.6 8.3 9
Cystine % protein 1.3 0.1 1.0 1.4 9
Glutamic acid % protein 9.9 0.4 9.2 10.5 9
Glycine % protein 4.5 0.2 4.2 4.8 9
Histidine % protein 3.5 0.4 2.9 4.2 9
Isoleucine % protein 3.9 0.5 3.3 4.4 9
Leucine % protein 6.5 0.5 5.8 7.1 9
Lysine % protein 7.5 0.8 6.5 8.5 9
Methionine % protein 1.9 0.1 1.7 2.0 9
Phenylalanine % protein 4.1 0.5 3.5 4.7 9
Proline % protein 4.7 0.1 4.5 4.9 9
Serine % protein 5.4 0.3 5.0 5.8 9
Threonine % protein 4.9 0.1 4.5 5.1 9
Tryptophan % protein 1.1 0.0 1.0 1.2 5
Tyrosine % protein 4.8 1.0 3.6 6.1 9
Valine % protein 6.2 0.5 5.5 6.9 9
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 83.0 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 79.4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.2 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 69.1 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 57.4 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.8 *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 49.5 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Hervieu et al., 1995; Jentsch et al., 1989; Pettersson, 1994; USICA, 1992; USICA, 1993; Vargas et al., 1965

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:45

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 23.9 3.0 15.7 27.8 17
Crude protein % DM 9.5 0.5 8.7 10.5 21
Crude fibre % DM 21.4 2.6 17.5 28.0 16
NDF % DM 50.0 7.3 39.9 54.6 5 *
ADF % DM 25.2 1.7 22.3 26.1 5 *
Lignin % DM 1.6 0.4 1.2 2.0 5
Ether extract % DM 1.2 1.0 1.3 2
Ash % DM 8.4 1.8 5.5 12.2 67
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 14.7 3.4 10.1 25.0 90
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 0.2 0.7 1.5 47
Potassium g/kg DM 3.7 1.3 2.0 6.8 27
Sodium g/kg DM 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.4 24
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 0.2 1.0 1.7 25
Manganese mg/kg DM 54 11 38 73 17
Zinc mg/kg DM 12 2 8 16 17
Copper mg/kg DM 4 0 4 4 6
Iron mg/kg DM 553 112 364 708 17
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 82.4 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 78.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.4 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.0 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 70.2 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 56 4 53 60 3

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

AFZ, 2011; Chapoutot et al., 1990; Hervieu et al., 1995; Karalazos et al., 1988; Meschy, 2010; Vargas et al., 1965; Woodman, 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:45

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/710 Last updated on July 20, 2017, 14:56