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Apple-ring acacia (Faidherbia albida)

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Apple-ring acacia, ana tree, anatree, balanzan tree, winter thorn [English]; arbre blanc [French]; espina de invierno [Spanish]; espinheiro de Angola [Portuguese]; Anaboom [Afrikaans]; balanzan [Bambara]; Anabaum [German]; Gao [Niger]; シロアカシア [Japanese]; Kadd [Wolof]

Synonyms 

Acacia albida Del., Acacia albida Del. var. microfoliata De Wild., Acacia albida Del. var. varifoliata De Wild., Acacia gyrocarpa Hochst. ex. A. Rich., Acacia leucocephala Link, Acacia mossambecensis Bolle, Acacia saccharata Benth (USDA, 2009).

Related feed(s) 
Description 

The apple-ring acacia (Faidherbia albida (Delile) A. Chev.) is a deciduous legume tree, up to 30 m high. It has a deep taproot, down to 40 m. Its branches bear paired thorns and its leaves are pinnate with 6-23 pairs of small oblong leaflets. Flowers are arranged in yellow spikes, fruits (pods) are twisted and shiny orange, indehiscent, 25 cm long and 5 cm broad (Orwa et al., 2009). Faidherbia albida has an inverse phenology: it sheds its leaves during the wet season, while the leaves mature during the dry season and the pods ripen at the end. It is thus valuable in periods of scarcity as fodder but also as famine food: people eat the seeds during droughts, even though they require a long preparation time (Ecoport, 2009; Bernard, 2002).

Distribution 

Faidherbia albida is native to arid or semi-arid areas of Africa and is widespread on the African continent. It is commonly found in the Middle-East and in South-East Asia, India, Pakistan, Cyprus, Cape Verde and Peru (Orwa et al., 2009). It grows well in sandy areas with 250-1800 mm annual rainfall and long dry seasons, with temperatures ranging from 6°C to 42°C (Ecoport, 2009). It is tolerant to waterlogging and salinity (Orwa et al., 2009).

Forage management 

Annual yield ranges from 20-30 kg fruits/tree/year (FAO, 2009) to about 125 kg fruits/tree/year (Bernard, 2002).

Environmental impact 

Thanks to its leaf and flowering pattern, Faidherbia albida is an ideal agroforestry species: it can grow among field crops without shading them during the wet season and provides shade during drought periods (Orwa et al., 2009). Shedding leaves at the beginning of the wet season quickly provides nutrients to the soil (N, P, Ca). The leaves mixed with the dung and urine of cattle that seek the shade of trees in hot weather and the ability of the tree to fix nitrogen make it a valuable asset in maintaining soil fertility (Ecoport, 2009). It has been recommended to intercrop apple-ring trees with maize rather than Leucaena leucocephala (Orwa et al., 2009), or to intercrop them with sorghum (Gutteridge et al., 1994), or pearl millet and groundnut (Bernard, 2002).

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

The leaves and pods contain high levels of tannins (Nsahlai et al., 1999).

Ruminants 

Faidherbia albida is highly regarded by herdsmen and farmers in arid and semi-arid regions of Africa (Gutteridge et al., 1994). The leaves and pods are palatable to livestock. The pods had the highest intake of several legume species in cattle, goats and sheep (Shayo et al., 1999).

Cattle

It is recommended to grind pods in order to feed cattle more efficiently (Shayo et al., 1999). Ground pods supplemented to dairy cows fed on grass hay were found to be suitable for milk production up to 1 kg pods (DM) per day (Bwire et al., 2004).

Sheep

Faidherbia albida pods were beneficial to sheep fed on noug (Guizotia abyssinica) or groundnut meal and resulted in higher liveweight gain (Nsahlai et al., 1999).

Goats

Faidherbia albida has a high forage value for goats (Yahaya et al., 2000). In Senegal, goats offered several browse species had a preference for apple-ring tree (Cisse et al., 2002).

Male goats in Sudan fed up to 45% pods in the diet had a better feed intake and feed conversion ratio (Ibrahim et al., 2003). Feeding lactating goats with pods and urea-treated sorghum straw resulted in increased milk yield (Ahmed et al., 2001).

Rabbits 

Faidherbia albida pods are suitable for rabbits. They may be included up to 40% of the diet without negatively affecting nutrient digestibility and blood parameters, and resulted in reduced feed costs (Igwebuike et al., 1999a; Igwebuike et al., 1999b; Igwebuike et al., 2003; Igwebuike et al., 2008).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 38.5 6.3 30.7 44.4 4
Crude protein % DM 15.1 3.1 11.6 25.1 60
Crude fibre % DM 20.4 4.9 12.4 33.0 14
NDF % DM 39.9 3.7 31.5 47.2 54
ADF % DM 29.7 4.3 22.1 37.8 52
Lignin % DM 13.5 3.0 7.9 19.4 48
Ether extract % DM 4.6 0.8 2.3 6.3 37
Ash % DM 9.3 2.0 3.9 12.3 58
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.3 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 17.0 6.6 10.0 33.6 12
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.8 0.4 0.9 2.5 13
Potassium g/kg DM 10.6 3.7 5.2 15.9 7
Sodium g/kg DM 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.9 3
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.5 1.0 2.4 4.9 9
Manganese mg/kg DM 63 53 73 2
Zinc mg/kg DM 27 26 29 2
Copper mg/kg DM 9 6 13 2
Iron mg/kg DM 1171 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 36.2 29.0 4.0 111.0 10
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 39.6 0.3 79.0 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 74.9 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 71.7 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.1 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.6 *
a (N) % 46.0 1
b (N) % 30.0 1
c (N) h-1 0.045 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 62 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 59 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bartha, 1970; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Fall Touré, 1991; Getachew et al., 2000; Orskov et al., 1992; Russell, 1947; Shayo et al., 1999

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:12

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.4 1.2 90.2 93.6 26
Crude protein % DM 12.0 0.9 10.3 13.9 26
NDF % DM 37.9 2.1 34.1 41.3 18
ADF % DM 28.5 2.3 23.7 32.0 26
Lignin % DM 14.1 1.5 11.1 16.3 26
Ether extract % DM 6.5 1.0 4.9 8.4 26
Ash % DM 10.9 1.3 8.7 13.1 26

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:12

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.1 1.1 89.2 94.2 45
Crude protein % DM 11.0 1.1 8.6 14.3 52
Crude fibre % DM 26.4 3.3 19.7 30.7 26
NDF % DM 42.9 2.5 37.4 47.9 21
ADF % DM 33.6 2.5 28.8 38.6 37
Lignin % DM 8.8 1.0 6.7 11.0 36
Ether extract % DM 1.2 0.2 0.9 1.8 44
Ash % DM 4.1 0.4 3.4 5.0 51
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 18.5 20.3 2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 3.8 1.1 2.3 6.4 18
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 0.3 1.3 2.3 18
Potassium g/kg DM 12.0 1.3 9.2 14.8 16
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4 7
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.5 0.5 0.9 3.3 16
Manganese mg/kg DM 22 17 13 71 10
Zinc mg/kg DM 18 5 10 28 9
Copper mg/kg DM 5 2 3 8 10
Iron mg/kg DM 68 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 7.3 3.4 2.4 13.2 12
Tannins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 0.2 0.2 0.3 2
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 85.7 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 83.0 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 15.4 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.5 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 51.0 1
a (N) % 54.0 1
b (N) % 18.0 1
c (N) h-1 0.059 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 65 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 63 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 48.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.0 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bartha, 1970; CGIAR, 2009; CIRAD, 1991; Fall Touré, 1991; French, 1932; Lale et al., 2002; Nsahlai et al., 1999; Parigi-Bini et al., 1991; Shayo et al., 1999; Tanner et al., 1990

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:12

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.9 90.2 95.5 2
Crude protein % DM 28.4 1.9 26.8 30.5 3
Crude fibre % DM 9.2 8.1 10.3 2
NDF % DM 24.5 21.1 27.9 2
ADF % DM 16.9 15.7 18.2 2
Lignin % DM 4.4 4.2 4.5 2
Ether extract % DM 2.8 2.5 3.0 2
Ash % DM 4.3 0.6 3.8 5.0 3
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.2 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.8 2.5 3.0 2
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.2 3.7 4.7 2
Potassium g/kg DM 10.7 1
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.8 1
 
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 0.0 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 91.1 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 90.0 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 17.3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.8 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 75.7 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.6 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Tanner et al., 1990

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:12

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2016. Apple-ring acacia (Faidherbia albida). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/357 Last updated on March 21, 2016, 16:52

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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