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Soybean hulls


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Common names 

Soybean mill feed, soybean mill run, soybean hulls [English]; coques de soja [French]; casca de soja [Portuguese]


Dolichos soja L., Glycine gracilis Skvortsov, Glycine hispida (Moench) Maxim., Glycine hispida var. brunnea Skvortsov, Glycine hispida var. lutea Skvortsov, Glycine soja (L.) Merr., Phaseolus max L., Soja hispida Moench, Soja max (L.) Piper


Soybean hulls are a by-product of the extraction of oil from soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). After entering the oil mill, soybeans are screened to remove broken and damaged beans and foreign materials (Extension, 2008). The beans are then cracked, and their hulls, which mainly consists of the outer coats, are removed (see figure above). Hulls are fibrous materials with no utility in human food, but very valuable for ruminants (Ipharraguerre et al., 2003). Soybean hulls are often reintroduced in the final oil meal in order to reduce its protein content, resulting in soybean meal types with a maximum protein + fat guarantee of 44 to 48%. However, this end use decreases when the demand for high protein soybean meal increases. Soybean hulls are thus available and very valuable feeds for on-farm feeding by cattle and dairy farmers (Extension, 2008).

Soybean hulls are light, flaky, and bulky. They require special considerations for handling: closed feeders are necessary when soybean hulls are fed outside, since the wind tends to blow the hulls away. During transportation, closed and covered trailers are also required (Extension, 2008). Pelleting hulls is a way to reduce bulkiness and reduce transportation costs, but many feed manufacturers prefer using unpelleted hulls to prepare compound feed (Blasi et al., 2000).


Soybean hulls are available wherever soybeans are produced. It is estimated that soybean hulls represent about 5% of soybean weight (Blasi et al., 2000). According to world production of soybean which was 308 millions tons in 2014, it can be stated that production of soybean hulls was about 15 million tons in 2014 (FAO, 2016). Only a part of this production is used as feed, since hulls are reincorporated in soybean meal to comply with the intended protein content (Extension, 2008).


Sieving, heating and pelleting

Soybean hulls have to be heat-treated and milled to reduce their bulkiness and lower their urease activity (Extension, 2008). After cracking of soybeans, the hulls first pass through a sieve which separates fines and meats from the proper hulls. The hulls are then toasted in order to destroy urease enzyme (see Potential constraints on the "Nutritional aspects" tab) (Blasi et al., 2000). After heat treatments soybean hulls are referred to as soybean mill run, soybean flakes, or soybran flakes (Boyle, 1999). Since soybean hulls have a very low density, they can be milled and pelleted to lower bulkiness. However, many feed manufacturers prefer using unpelleted soybean hulls to make their own pellets mixtures (Blasi et al., 2000). 

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

The nutritional value of soybean hulls is quite good but also highly variable (Extension, 2008; Blasi et al., 2000). The variability of soybean hulls is mainly due to the misclassification between well-cleaned soybean hulls and soybean mill feed or soybean mill run, two by-products that still contain particles of seed kernels and are thus higher in protein and lower in fibre(Blasi et al., 2000). As a result, products marketed as "soybean hulls" can have a relatively high protein content (9-18% DM), and high nutrients digestibilities (Blasi et al., 2000; Extension, 2008). The fibre in soybean hulls is rapidly fermented and may contain substantial amounts of pectin. Soybean hulls have a high NDF (52-74% dm), but because of the their small particle size, the effective NDF is much lower (Boyle, 1999). Soybean hulls are sometimes considered an energy feed rather than a roughage feed (Extension, 2008).

Potential constraints 

Antinutritional factors

Soybean seeds contain antinutritional factors, notably trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, lectins and saponins (Rackis et al., 1986). Soybean hulls, as part of the seed, also contain antinutritional factors:

  • Trypsin inhibitors: raw soybeans and soybean hulls contain trypsin inhibitors that bind with trypsin in the small intestine, and form an inactive complex that prevents trypsin from degrading feed proteins (van Eys et al., 2004). Trypsin inhibitors also induce pancreatic enlargement, increase trypsin secretion and, therefore, lower N retention, growth and feed conversion (van Eys et al., 2004; Rackis et al., 1986). Due to these antinutritional factors, raw soybean hulls are not recommended for feeding. Ruminants are not as sensitive because trypsin inhibitors are deactivated and degraded in the rumen (Hoffmann et al., 2003). However, trypsin inhibitors are heat labile and largely destroyed by heating (Rackis et al., 1986) so heat treatment is required before feeding soybean products to animals, particularly to monogastrics.
  • Lectins are heat-labile . Ko information could be found about their presence in soybean hulls. Lectins are also heat-labile.
  • Saponins are glycosides that diminish the uptake of other nutrients.
  • Tannins are higher in soybean hulls than in whole soybeans (2.31 vs. 1.52 mg catechin equivalent/g) (Egounlety et al., 2003).
  • Others antinutritional factors: soybean may contain antivitaminsurease and plant sterols that may interfere with the absorption of carotenoids and vitamin E (Brown et al., 2008).

Urease activity

Like soybean seeds, soybean hulls may contain the urease enzyme. If soybean hulls are fed in association with feeds containing urea, urease may cause the rapid breakdown of urea into ammonia, which accumulates in the rumen. Ruminal microflora may be unable to handle high amounts of NH3 which enters systemic circulation and may cause sudden death in case of acute toxicity (Newkirk, 2010; Decker, 1996). In other cases, it may lead to excessive NH3 excretion in the environment, and poor N utilization (Kertz, 2010). When soybean hulls are mixed with other feeds, urease is generally destroyed (Extension, 2008).

Risk of choking

When hungry animals eat soybean hulls too quickly, there is some risk of choking. However, when this occurs animal mostly relieve the obstruction on their own. A way of limiting the risk of choking is to mix soybean hulls with other feed, top-dress with other feeds or feed the animal prior to give them soybean hulls (Schoenian, 2015).

Copper toxicity

The copper content of soybean hulls is about 17 ppm. In sheep, it is thus likely to raise the copper content of the ration above the maximum tolerable level of copper (15 ppm) that sheep can tolerate when they are offered diets containing “normal” levels of molybdenum and sulfur. Where the risk of copper toxicity occurs, it may be advised to provide sufficient molybdenum in the diet to prevent problems (Schoenian, 2015). 


When the weather is too warm and humid at the time of soybean harvest, fungi developement may result in the production of mycotoxins. Among them, zearalelone is particularly concentrated in the hulls (Jacobsen et al., 1995; Valenta et al., 2002). 

Genetically-modified soybeans

The potential health issues of genetically-modified soybeans and other GM foods is a matter of considerable debate. While most studies have failed to show deleterious side-effects to the use of GM soybean (EFSA GMO Panel, 2008), these varieties remain controversial and subject to legal authorisations in some countries.


Soybean hulls have a high nutritive value for ruminants, and they are a highly digestible fibre source: supplementing diets with soybean hulls increases ruminal microflora flow and ruminal fibre digestion. However, soybean hulls do not provide as effective fibre (large particle size) as roughages, and this should be taken into account when replacing forages with soybean hulls (Boggs et al., 1997). Soybean hulls may be used as an energy source to supplement low to medium quality forage based diets, and they can also be used to replace part of the concentrate in the ration. In the USA, soybean hulls are often use to replace hay or maize, during winter in cattle diets (Boyles, 1999). 

Dairy cows

Lactating dairy cows

Soybean hulls are a highly digestible fibre source that is readily consumed by dairy cows. However, soybean hulls do not provide long fibre and are not a source of fibre as effective as roughages. Several experiments have attempted to define the optimal levels for soybean hulls in different diets (Blasi et al., 2000). Milk production of lactating dairy cows is very variable when soybean hulls are included in the diet (Bateman et al., 2000; Blasi et al., 2000). There are two ways to include soybean hulls in dairy cow diets. They can be used to replace part of the forage, or they can be used as an energy source and replace part of the concentrates.

When soybean hulls replaced a part of the roughage in dairy cow diets, they provided higher energy without causing acidosis that usually occurs with high energy feeds such as maize grain (Blasi et al., 2000). However, depending of the amount, type and physical form of the dietary forage it replaces, the influence of soybean hulls may be positive or negative. 

Table 1. Effects of forage replacement by soybean hulls in dairy cow diets 

Control diet (% DM) Soybean hulls level (% DM) DM intake variation Fat-corrected milk variation (kg/day) FCM/DMI Reference
43.2% forage (alfalfa hay + maize silage) 4.6 0.4 -0.2 1.16 Sarwar et al., 1992
43.2% forage (alfalfa hay + maize silage) 9.1 0 1 1.23 Sarwar et al., 1992
50% forage 12.5 -0.6 -0.6 1.4 Cunningham et al., 1993
50% forage 25 -1.8 -1.8 1.5 Cunningham et al., 1993
52.6% forage (alfalfa haylage + maize silage) 14.1   4   Stone et al. 1993 cited by Blasi et al., 2000
50% forage (alfalfa haylage + maize silage) 15 -0.66 -2   Weidner et al., 1994a
50% forage (alfalfa haylage + maize silage) 15 -0.84 -5.5   Weidner et al., 1994a
50% forage (alfalfa haylage + maize silage) 25 0.02 -2.4   Weidner et al., 1994a
50% forage (alfalfa haylage + maize silage) 25 2.65 1.6   Weidner et al., 1994a

From the results above, it could be concluded that in dairy cow diets containing more than 50% forage the inclusion of soybean hulls could range between 15 and 25% (dietary level, DM basis) and result in higher DM intake and yield higher fat-corrected milk (Blasi et al., 2000). It is generally advised to limit soybean hulls to 25% when it is replacing forages in a diet (Ipharraguerre et al., 2003). Cows in very early lactation (less than 30 days in milk) should probably not be fed soybean hulls since they are prone to displaced abomasum when effective fibre is low (Newkirk, 2010).

When soybean hulls were used to replace energy feed like maize grain, they were safely included in dairy cow diets at up to 40% dietary level without compromising milk yield, fat-corrected milk yield, milk protein or milk lactose. But as for the replacement of forages, caution should be exercised because the response to feeding soybean hulls is largely affected by the type of carbohydrates that is replaced by the hulls (Ipharraguerre et al., 2003). Milk fat increased linearly with increasing content in soybean hulls (Lima et al., 2009; Pedroso et al., 2007; Cunningham et al., 1993).

Table 2. Effects of concentrate replacement by soybean hulls in dairy cow diets:

Control diet (% DM) Soybean hulls level (% DM) DM intake variation Fat-corrected milk variation (kg/day) FCM/DMI Reference
54% concentrate 7 0.5 1.3 1.21 Sarwar et al., 1992
54% concentrate 12.6 1 3 1.26 Sarwar et al., 1992
50% concentrate 12.5 -1.4 -2.1 1.4 Cunningham et al., 1993
50% concentrate 25 -0.9 -1.6 1.4 Cunningham et al., 1993
Dry and gestating cows

Soybean hulls allowed cows to spend winter on stockpiled tall fescue without spending too much hay (281 kg hay were spared per cow) but also reduced weight losses in cows (Kerley et al., 1995). Gestating cows grazing on dormant native range could be fed on soybean hulls rather than on soybean meal. Cows on soybean hulls had higher weight gain than cows on soybean meal (Marston et al., 1992).

Beef cattle

Growing cattle

Soybean hulls enhance the performance of backgrounded calves placed on grass pastures or grass/clover hay (Boyles, 1999; Allison et al., 1993). Using soybean hulls as a supplement (instead of maize grain) to steers fed on tall fescue  (Festuca arundinacea) (or any other low to moderate quality forage) gave similar positive results as maize supplement (about 1 kg daily weight gain) (Boyles, 1999). Many studies are consistent with this result (Galloway et al., 1993; Duff et al., 1993; Anderson et al., 1988; Highfill et al., 1987; Brown et al., 1981). It has been reported that feeding soybean hulls to steers grazing on tall fescue infested by Neotyphodium coenophialum could alleviate health problems due to toxic tall fescue, such as sleek hair coat (Carter et al., 2010). However, these results were not consistent with previous results obtained two years before (Aiken et al., 2008). Holstein steers fed on Bahia grass hay (Paspalum notatum) could be supplemented with soybean hulls (0.75% BW) or soybean hulls and molasses, or soybean hulls, molasses and urea. Cattle receiving soybean hulls had higher average daily gain but also higher urea nitrogen in plasma. The addition of molasses could reduce the urea nitrogen in plasma. Hay intake was not reduced by soybean hulls supplement (Kostenbauder et al., 2007). Fall-weaned steer calves grazing on higher quality forage such as wheat forage had similar performance with soybean hulls as with maize grain. The feed conversion ratio was improved, the stocking rate in pasture increased by 30%, and daily weight gains were 150 g higher (Cravey et al., 1993).

It was shown that supplementing cattle with only 1 kg soybean hulls had the same positive effect on hay intake as supplementing cattle with maize grain in spite of the difference between the two feeds for true digestible nutrients (91% in maize vs. 77% in soybean hulls). This could be attributed to the high digestibility of soybean hulls fibre (Blasi et al., 2000). It is important to notice that the high fermentescibility of soybean hulls may result in some ruminal distension if cattle consume high volumes of hulls (Blasi et al., 2000). When soybean hulls were used as the main ingredient of growing cattle diet, it has been shown that it could favourably compare wih traditional roughage-based diet: it resulted in lower feed intake, slightly lower daily gains and improved feed conversion ratio. When soybean hulls were compared to high-energy based diets fed under restriction (1.5% BW vs. 2.25%) they resulted in higher intake, higher weight gains and better feed conversion ratio (Blasi et al., 2000).

Soybean hulls could successfully replace maize grain in creep calves diets (Faulkner et al., 1994).

Finishing cattle

It was possible to use soybean hulls in high-concentrate diets for finishing cattle. Soybean hulls could replace 25% of grain sorghum without hindering daily gain or feed efficiency (Coffey et al., 1989). It was suggested that soybean hulls had 74% feeding value of maize grain when it was included at up to 60% (DM basis) in the diet (Ludden et al., 1995).


Dairy ewes

Lactating ewes fed on soybean hulls and distillers grains that completely replaced hay in the diet had a higher milk production than ewes fed a hay-based diet, but milk fat percentage was lower. Lamb performance was higher for the ewes that produced more milk (Zelinsky et al., 2014b). Soybean hulls were included in order to replace 33, 67, and 100% of the NDF of the hay in the diet of lactating ewes. Feed intake, milk production increased with soybean hulls inclusion (Araujo et al., 2008).

Growing lambs

Soybean hulls were used as an energy and fibre source in lamb finishing diets. Lambs had a higher dry matter intake, but also reduced feed efficiency as compared to traditional corn-based diets (Zelinsky et al., 2014a).


In lactating goats, as in lactating cows, soybean hulls is an energy source and can replace maize grain. It could totally replace maize grain in maize silage-soybean based diets offered to lactating goats in early lactation (Zambom et al., 2012). Inclusion of soybean hulls had no negative effects on body weight, daily weight gain, and intake (kg/day) of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein or indigestible neutral detergent fiber. It increased NDF intake and digestibility coefficients and, while no changes were observed in milk yield, milk production efficiency and milk composition, the inclusion of soybean hulls increased the content of n-3 fatty acids in milk (Zambom et al., 2012). 


Because of their high fibre content, soybean hulls have not been included routinely in pig diets (Lewis et al., 2001). Including soybean hulls in pig diets was reported to decrease the DM, N or amino acid digestibilities of soybean meal-based diets for growing pigs (Dilger et al., 2004). A decrease of 0.2% in some true ileal essential amino acid digestibilities resulted with each 1% increase in soyhull inclusion (Dilger et al., 2004). However, different experiments have shown that soybean hulls could be used as an alternative feed for pig diets (Chee et al., 2005; DeCamp et al., 2001).


Soybean hulls are not recommended for piglets. They where shown to reduce daily feed intake and daily weight gain for the animals fed on diets containing 15% soybean hulls compared to the control feed without soybean hulls (Moreira et al., 2009).

Growing pigs

Soybean hulls could be included at 10% in growing pig diets and at 12% in fattening pig diets without hindering palability or animal performance. It could replace wheat bran without any problem (Chee et al., 2005). It has been reported that feeding 10% soybean hulls to fattening gilts or barrows (above 85 kg) had positive effects on growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and carcass characteristics (DeCamp et al., 2001). Growing pigs fed up to 15% supplemental soybean hulls did not experience any depression in average daily gain or feed intake, although metabolizable energy intake was decreased linearly as the level of soybean hulls increased. In this experiment the most efficient conversion ratio was observed for pigs consuming diets containing 15% soybean hulls (Kornegay, 1981).


In Thailand, it was shown that the inclusion of 20% soybean hulls to replace rice bran in sow diets had no adverse effect on the reproductive performance of the animals. It increased the litter size at weaning, and feed intake during the lactation period (Kanto et al., 2009). The use of soybean hulls at up to 19% in sow diets was reported to reduce aggression during the mixing of pregnant sows, and to increase satiety in limit-fed gestating sows, thus being effective in improving overall welfare of sows (Sapkota et al., 2016).


Because of their high fibre content, soybean hulls are not commonly included in poultry diets. However, successful inclusion of soybean mill feed in poultry rations have been found (Muir et al., 1985 cited by Newkirk, 2010). In laying hens, up to 20% soybean hulls (with high level of N) could be included and improved feed cost/dozen eggs. Under cellulolytic enzyme supplementation this level could be increased at up to 30% without hampering laying hens performance (Esonu et al., 2010).


Soybean hulls are a common source of fibre in rabbit feeding in Western Europe (Villamide et al., 2010). The inclusion rate is generally between 5 and 10% for commercial diets (Gidenne et al., 2000; de Blas et al., 2010). Satisfactory results have been obtained in studies on soybean hulls utilization for rabbit feeding in other countries such as Nigeria (Orji, 2009), Egypt or Mexico (Safwat et al., 2014), Brazil (Arruda et al., 2002; Arruda et al., 2003) or Romania (Martina, 1983).

In experimental studies, it was possible to increase safely the inclusion rate up to 25-30% and even up to 40% (Arruda et al., 2002; Gutiérrez et al., 2000; Nicodemus et al. 1998). However, when including soybean hulls above 25-30% in diets for growing or reproducing rabbits, special attention must be paid to the lignin content of the complete diet, because of the low content of lignin of soybean hulls (de Blas et al., 1999) and of the relatively high fibre digestibility of this fibre source (Garcia et al., 1997; Gidenne et al., 2000). The ADF digestibility of soybean hulls is close to that of alfalfa (Evans et al., 1983), but the proportion of more digestible hemicellulose and digestible soluble fraction is higher. As a consequence of the proportions and digestibility of the various fibrous fractions in soybean hulls, the digestible energy content is about 7.5 to 8.0 MJ/kg DM according to different authors, i.e. a little bit lower than that of dehydrated alfalfa (Maertens et al., 1984; Maertens et al., 2002; Garcia et al., 1997; Perez et al., 1998).

In addition to fibre and energy, soybean hulls provide protein with a concentration close to minimum recommended for growing rabbit (Lebas, 2013), with a digestibility coefficient (65%) similar to that of alfalfa (Villamide et al., 2013). Soybean hull protein is relatively rich in lysine but deficient in sulphur amino acids: respectively 126% and 78% of the recommendations for balanced proteins used in rabbit nutrition (Lebas, 2013). Soybean hulls provide less than 50% of calcium and phosphorus necessary to rabbits (Lebas, 2013).

Mycotoxins risk

Attention should be paid to zearalenone, which may be concentrated in soybean hulls in case of fungal contamination and should not exceed 0.50 mg/kg in the final complete feed (Mézes et al., 2009). A mild contamination (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) could have an apparent favourable action on growing rabbits performance, but it is clearly toxic for adult rabbits with lesions of most organs: liver, kidneys, lung, heart, spleen or uterus (Abdelhamid et al., 1992).

Horses and donkeys 

Diets with up to 28% soybean hulls in the concentrate can be used as equine feed without negatively affecting digestibility, short-chain fatty acids concentrations or selected microbiota, and physicochemical characteristics in the feces (Kabe et al., 2016).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.1 1.0 86.4 92.2 821  
Crude protein % DM 13.1 1.8 9.5 18.6 777  
Crude fibre % DM 38.9 2.6 31.2 45.3 799  
NDF % DM 64.4 5.1 51.6 74.0 167  
ADF % DM 46.2 3.4 36.9 54.8 154  
Lignin % DM 2.3 0.8 0.7 4.4 187  
Ether extract % DM 2.2 0.9 0.6 5.0 472  
Ash % DM 5.2 0.3 4.4 6.1 461  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 5.2 3.5 0.0 9.8 15  
Total sugars % DM 1.6 1.3 0.3 4.0 7  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.2 0.3 17.5 18.7 11 *
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 5.5 1.1 2.2 9.1 116  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 0.6 0.4 3.6 136  
Potassium g/kg DM 13.8 1.8 10.2 17.6 20  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.2 24  
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.6 0.3 1.8 2.9 17  
Manganese mg/kg DM 24 10 9 43 16  
Zinc mg/kg DM 48 17 15 90 16  
Copper mg/kg DM 8 3 3 15 17  
Iron mg/kg DM 669 326 145 1401 18  
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.2 0.2 3.7 4.5 16  
Arginine % protein 4.7 0.4 4.2 6.0 18  
Aspartic acid % protein 9.2 0.6 8.5 10.2 5  
Cystine % protein 1.8 0.2 1.5 2.1 18  
Glutamic acid % protein 10.1 0.9 9.3 12.6 14  
Glycine % protein 7.9 1.0 5.8 9.1 18  
Histidine % protein 2.5 0.2 2.1 2.8 18  
Isoleucine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.1 4.0 18  
Leucine % protein 6.0 0.2 5.5 6.6 18  
Lysine % protein 6.3 0.4 5.5 7.0 18  
Methionine % protein 1.1 0.2 0.7 1.5 18  
Phenylalanine % protein 3.6 0.2 3.3 4.0 18  
Proline % protein 4.7 0.2 4.3 4.9 15  
Serine % protein 5.0 0.4 4.2 5.6 17  
Threonine % protein 3.5 0.1 3.3 3.7 18  
Tryptophan % protein 0.8 0.2 0.6 1.2 16  
Tyrosine % protein 3.8 0.1 3.6 4.1 13  
Valine % protein 4.3 0.3 3.9 4.6 5  
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 2.6       1  
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 81.8 6.3 69.7 86.7 5 *
OM digestibility, ruminants (gas production) % 42       1  
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 79.6 5.4 75.6 87.3 4 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 14.5 1.2 13.3 15.5 3 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.5         *
ME ruminants (gas production) MJ/kg DM 6.2       1  
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 78.4 9.1 46.4 78.4 5 *
a (N) % 30.3   26.4 34.3 2  
b (N) % 66.5   65.7 67.3 2  
c (N) h-1 0.043   0.023 0.063 2  
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 65         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 58 5 48 61 5 *
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 50.5 9.6 47.5 64.8 3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 9.2 1.6 8.6 11.4 3 *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.6         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 4.6         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 40.4   32.0 40.4 2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


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Last updated on 24/09/2016 11:17:29

Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Thiollet H., Tran G., Lessire M., Lebas F., 2016. Soybean hulls. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/719 Last updated on September 24, 2016, 12:32

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