Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are broadly distributed throughout the world. There are two geographically separate groups: new World species and Old Word species among which 4 are cultivated, one in from the New World and the 3 others from the Old World. All of them being smooth seeded. Lupins occupy almost all kinds of habitats from sea level to altitudes up to 4000 m (Wolko et al., 2010).
Yellow and blue lupins prefer light to medium textured, well-drained soils that are acid or neutral soils (Wolko et al., 2010).
White lupin can be grown from sea level up to an altitude of 740 m (Ecocrop, 2017). In Ethiopia, it is cultivated between 1500 and 3000 m altitude (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does better in places where average monthly temperatures during the growing season range from 18°C to 24°C and where rainfall is about 400-1000 mm during the same period. White lupin is tolerant of frost but temperatures of -6°C to -8°C during germination and -3° to -5°C at flowering stage are deleterious to the crop. Moisture deficiency is also harmful during the reproductive period (Jansen, 2006).
Blue lupin does well on low to moderately fertile, well-drained, light or medium textured and mildly acidic to neutral sands and sandy loams (Wolko et al., 2010). Blue lupin does not withstand waterlogged soils (Wolko et al., 2010). Under conditions where P is limiting, lupins form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free it from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012). However, blue lupin is less effective thant white and yellow lupins for P and Zn uptake (Wolko et al., 2010).
Statistics about lupin production are nesting all types of lupins. Worldwide lupin (Lupinus spp.) production in 2014 was about 1 million tons. Main lupin producer (625 000 tons) is Australia which is known to produce blue lupin.
Other important producers are Poland, Russia, Germany, Belarus, and Ukraine, totalizing 290000 tons of which most lupins are yellow lupins (TerresUnivia, 2016). The remaining production is due to France and Mediterranean countries like Italia, Spain, Greece and Egypt. This production is about 25 000 tons and is likely to be mainly white lupin (FAO, 2017).