Broken rice is a useful ingredient that can be used by small holders to make farm made feeds for fish and shrimps. It was reported to have medium pelletising abiltity (5 in a scale of 10). However recent research reported that broken rice might be suitable as a replacement for corn, wheat, and tapioca starch in producing high quality extruded floating or slow sinking fish pellets (Cruz et al., 2015). When cooked, broken rice can be used as a binder in moist diet (Hertrampf et al., 2000).
Broken rice can be used as an energy source for catfish, tilapias, snakehead, milkfish and herbivores fishes (Hertrampf et al., 2000).
Broken rice is a valuable carbohydrate source for most catfish.
Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)
Broken rice was included at 30% dietary level to striped catfish fingerlings and was reported to have the highest apparent digestibility of DM, OM, GE and CP which made it a potential replacer for fish meal (Da et al., 2013). Similar results had been reported in a former experiment at same inclusion level for broken rice (Hien et al., 2009).
Jundiá catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Jundia catfish, an omnivorous fish tending to be carnivorous could be fed on 30% broken rice in a digestibility trial. Broken rice had higher apparent digestibility coefficients than other plant products like ground maize, citrus pulp soybean hulls or wheat bran. However fish showed no significant difference for specific growth rate final body weight, fish DM content when they were fed either broken rice, ground maize, soybean hulls or wheat bran (Rodrigues et al., 2011).
Bagrid catfish (Mystus nemurus)
Bagrid catfish is a a freshwater fish with high protein requirements that also needs some carbohydrates in its diet. Bagrid catfish fry could receive broken rice as a source of carbohydrate at 17% without any deleterious effect of specific growth rate. Offering broken rice to bagrid catfishwas as effective as feeding them with ground maize and had better results than feeding sago flour or dextrin. This experiment also showed that cooking broken rice did not improve its nutritive value (Hamid et al., 2009).
Hybrid Clarias catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus)
Broken rice was included in hybrid catfish diets as a carbohydrate source at 30, 37, 45, 53.5 and 60% during 60 days. It was reported to give better growth rates from 37 to 60% inclusion. Feed conversion ratio, protein eficiency and energy retention were similar and the highest between 37 and 53.5% inclusion (Jantrarotai et al., 1994).
Broken rice could be used to produce extruded feed for tilapias though it had lower floating index and water stability than cassava meal (Somboon et al., 2014).
Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Nile tilapia could be fed on 30% broken rice in a digestibility trial. Broken rice had much higher apparent digestibility coefficients than other plant products like ground maize, citrus pulp soybean hulls or wheat bran. Nile tilapia showed significantly higher growth rate and final weight when fed on broken rice rather than on other plant products (Rodrigues et al., 2011).
It was reported that average daily gain (ADG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were higher in Nile tilapias fed on 30-50% broken rice than on those fed on cassava meal (Somboon et al., 2014).
In tilapia's extruded diets, broken rice included at 30% dietary level showed high ADC (apparent digestibility coeffients) values for energy (95.34 %) and DM (96.45 %) and medium ADC for protein (63%). Broken rice was reported to have the lowest available methionine and cystine compared to other carbohydrate sources (Guimaraes et al., 2008)
Red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)
Good digestibility coefficients (84% for CP) were observed for broken rice and other starch-richer ingrediants such as cookies residues, macaroni residue, cassava root meal and soybean meal included at 30% dietary level in red tilapia ( 210 g) diets (Novoa et al., 2013).
In cyprinides, broken rice could be effectively used at 30% dietary level as a source of energy (Jiang Xue-jiao et al., 2011). However compared to maize oil cake and rice polishings, broken rice resulted in lower average daily gain of major carp (Cirrhinus mrigala) fingerlings