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Broken rice and polished rice

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 
  • Broken rice, chits, brewer's rice, rice tips [English]; brisures de riz [French]; quirera de arroz [Portuguese]
  • Polished rice, milled rice
Synonyms 

Oryza glutinosa Lour., Oryza sativa var. affinis Körn., Oryza sativa var. erythroceros Körn., Oryza sativa var. flavoacies Kara-Murza ex Zhuk., Oryza sativa subsp. indica Kato., Oryza sativa cv. italica Alef., Oryza sativa subsp. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. japonica auct., Oryza sativa var. melanacra Körn., Oryza sativa var. suberythroceros Kanevsk, Oryza sativa var. vulgaris Körn., Oryza sativa var. zeravschanica Brches ex Katzaroff, nom. nud. (USDA, 2013)

Description 

Polished rice and broken rice are usually food-grade products. Polished rice results from rice milling. It is paddy rice from which husks, polishings and bran have been removed. Polished rice represents 60-72% of the processed rice grain (Ffoulkes, 1998). Broken rice separated out after the polishing stage has the same chemical composition as polished rice. Broken rice is actually broken polished rice kernels that are 25% or less of the original length of the grain; they may represent 2-3% of the rice grain processed (Baicich, 2013; Blair, 2007; Ffoulkes, 1998).

There is seldom any surplus of polished rice/broken rice available for livestock feeding, as much of it is remixed with the whole grains and sold as low-grade rice. It is also sold to the brewing industry for mixing with barley and get pale laggers (Baicich, 2013). In some countries it is used for the production of arak (an alcoholic beverage) or as the raw material for rice flour. Polished rice and broken rice are also sources of starch. In the USA, most of broken rice goes to dog-feed industry (Baicich, 2013). Polished rice is seldom used as animal feed because of its high price, but it can be fed in the same way as broken rice.

Distribution 

Rice originates from Asia where it is known to have been growing since 6500 BC. It was then brought to all tropical regions within centuries. Rice grows from 53°N in China to 35°S in Australia. The optimal growing conditions are: 20-30°C average day-temperature with night temperature over 15°C; fertile, heavy soils; and a PH between 6.5-7. Most varieties ("swamp rice", "lowland rice") must be planted in stagnant water and require 200 mm rainfall/month or the equivalent amount from irrigation, whereas others ("mountain rice" or "upland rice") require less irrigation and 750 mm rainfall on a 3-4 months period, and no dessication.

In 2013, out of a world production of 495 million tons of rice (milled equivalent), 33 million tons of rice (whole grain, polished or broken rice) were used as feed and 27 million tons were wasted (FAO, 2017).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Polished rice and broken rice have a high starch content. They contain little fat, fiber, or protein (Casas et al., 2015; Vicente et al., 2009). Broken rice is a palatable, energy-rich and easily used feed. It is fed to all classes of livestock, and is particularly valuable in monogastric diets as it contains less fibre and less aflatoxins than other grains (Aftab et al., 2012). Although lower in protein than all other cereals, broken rice is comparatively rich in lysine (Choct, 2002). High energy value and low fibre content of broken rice make it especially valuable in rations for growing chickens. Broken rice also has low non starch polysaccharides which have a negative effect on the digestibility and utilization of nutrients (Low, 1985). Broken rice has thus a good aminoacid digestibility (above 90%), higher than that of maize wheat or barley grains in pigs (Choct, 2002; Stein et al., 2001).

Ruminants 

Polished rice can be fed to ruminants as a local protein and energy supplement to grazing or conserved forages in tropical climates.

Digestibility and energy values

Broken rice was identified as a promising local protein and energy feed in terms of degradability and rumen environment in swamp buffaloes (Nguyen Van, 1997). In vivo metabolizable energy (ME) and digestible energy (DE) of broken rice were measured for sheep at an amount of 35% of a basal diet. They were respectively of 3.35 and 3.27 Mcal/kg DM. Because of substantial by-pass of the rumen, fermentation of the starch and protein in broken rice is reduced; this may explain why DE is quite low for sheep (compared with pigs for example) (Farrell et al., 1982).

Cattle

Dairy cows

Polished rice is not very common in dairy cattle feeding practices. It can be one of the ingredient of the concentrate given to dairy cows, for example as a supplement to cassava chips with or without cottonseed meal (Promkot et al., 2005). Very recently, the bio-economic effects of polished rice were evaluated as an energy source from local resource for Jersey × Central American Milking Creole in a silvopastoral system with poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) in Costa Rica (Jiménez-Ferrer et al., 2015). This study showed that milk production was not affected by the energy source (polished rice vs. green banana, grain sorghum or sugarcane molasses). Total milk production (8.8 kg/d/cow) was above the average reported in grazing milk systems in Latin America. The financial analysis showed that using polished rice in such systems was economically viable.

Growing cattle

As in dairy cattle, broken rice can be fed as an ingredient of the concentrate given to buffalo calves (starter ration) (Borhami et al., 1967) or adults males (Haque et al., 2004). But there is no evaluation in the literature of the influence of broken rice itself on in vivo digestibility or intake.

Sheep

No study was found reporting the inclusion of broken or polished rice in the diet of sheep (as of 2017).

Goats

A study conducted in West Bengal showed that the majority (78.43%) of Santals (tribe of people indigenous to Terai of Nepal and India) offer broken rice and rice gruel in addition to free range grazing to their goats (Dana et al., 2015). Broken rice was also found to be fed in Thailand, as part of a concentrate given to goats given mix of corn meal and cassava chips (Chanjula et al., 2007) or a total mixed ration based on oil palm frond silage (Wahyuni et al., 2012).

Pigs 

Broken rice has high energy, low fibre, and valuable fatty acids. Broken rice results in high macronutrients digestibilities and compares favourably to other energy sources such as ground maize, rice bran or cassava chips (Vasupen et al., 2008a; Vasupen et al., 2008b). Compared to other energy carbohydrates sources (cereal grains), broken rice is a valuable source of digestible aminoacids with SID of aminocids reported to be 0.96 in growing pigs (Brestensky et al., 2014; Brestensky et al., 2013). 

Growing and fattening pigs

In the 50's, broken rice was reported to be 6% worthier than corn in 22 experiments with fattening pigs (Morrison, 1957). 

Broken rice could be used as sole feed totally replacing maize in maize-based pig diets without deleterious effects on feed intake, growth rate and final body weight. It had no negative effect on carcass characteristics and no effect on feed conversion ratio (Kiefer et al., 2006; Mateos et al., 2006). Broken rice, in substitution of maize, increased nutrients digestibility and daily weight gain (Vicente et al., 2009; Mateos et al., 2006). Feeding broken rice instead of maize grain also improved the structure of the ileal mucosa in pigs (Vicente et al., 2009).

Broken rice is also often referred to as a basal diet for local or crossbred growing pigs pigs in Asia (Chiv Phiny et al., 2010; Thim Sokha et al., 2008; Chhay Ty et al., 2007; Chhay Ty et al., 2006; Chhay Ty et al., 2005; Norachack et al., 2004). It is generally included at 2-3% of animal liveweight as DM (Chiv Phiny et al., 2010; Ly et al., 2002). It has been shown that growing pigs fed on broken rice had higher nutrients (OM, CP, fat, and carbohydrates) digestibilities than pigs fed on cassava chips (Vasupen et al., 2008a). Animals fed on broken rice had also higher Ca and P digestibilities than those fed on cassava chips (Vasupen et al., 2008b). Crossbred pigs of different weights (11-14 kg or 16-18 kg) fed on broken rice based diets were also reported to have higher average daily gain (Vasupen et al., 2008a; Vasupen et al., 2008b; Chhay Ty et al., 2006; Chhay Ty et al., 2005).

It was also reported that broken rice basal diet could be effectively supplemented with fresh mulberry leaves, cassava leaves, water spinach leaves or a mixture of the two latter foliages. Foliage supplementation increased overall dietary energy intake and N retention in pigs (Chhay Ty et al., 2006; Chhay Ty et al., 2005; Norachack et al., 2004). It was shown that fresh leaves of water spinach could provide up to 70% of protein in broken rice based diets (Prak Kea et al., 2003).

Though lysine supplementation had no effect on feed conversion ratio, it improved daily weight gain, feed intake and energy intake when pigs were fed on broken rice (Hurtado-Nery et al., 2015).

Piglets

Broken rice could be fed in the same way as maize to nursery piglets (Yuangthong et al., 2012). While maize could be profitably extruded, it was shown that broken rice extrusion was not necessary to improve its nutritional value (Hua Liu et al., 2016). Broken rice could be used in diets for nursery pigs without detrimental effects on growth performance, and improved intestinal health has been reported (Vicente et al., 2009). It was also reported that rice cooking is routinely used in Thailand to feed young pigs (Aftab et al., 2012).

Rabbits 

Broken rice is normally used in rabbit feeding in the different countries producing rice for human consumption, such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam or Laos (Thepouyporn et al., 2006; Pok Samkol et al., 2006; Nguyen Thi Duong Huyen et al., 2013; Hongthong Phimmmasan et al., 2004), but also India, Nepal (Prasad et al., 2000; Ghosh et al., 2008; Neupane et al., 2011), Hungary (Oanh, 1983) and Italy (Amici et al., 1995).

Broken rice is used as a source of digestible energy after inclusion in balanced concentrates at a level of 5 to 20% (Ghosh et al., 2008; Dinh Van Binh et al., 1991; Neupane et al., 2011) or simply distributed along with a protein-rich forage such as water spinach or sweet potato wines (Pok Samkol et al., 2006; Nguyen Thi Duong Huyen et al., 2013). The technical benefit of the combined distribution of broken rice + forage depends mainly of the type and composition of the used forage. For experimental purposes broken rice has been included in complete diets up to 30-40% of the diet without particular problems (Oanh, 1983; Prasad et al., 2000).

For utilisation in balanced diets, broken rice is a good source of digestible energy, about 15 MJ/kg DM, with a moderate crude protein level (8-12%), these proteins having a high coefficient of digestibility of 80% (Oanh, 1983). For growing rabbits, broken or polished rice proteins are slightly deficient in lysine and sulphur-containing amino acids, providing 82% and 92% of requirements respectively (Lebas, 2013). However, broken rice is quite devoid of fibre (0.4 to 1.5% crude fibre) and of calcium. Thus in no case it should be used as sole feed for rabbits.

As a conclusion, broken rice or polished rice, if cheap enough, are suitable sources of starchy digestible energy, usable to feed rabbits exclusively in association with other raw materials.

Horses and donkeys 

In Australia, broken white rice have been widely used for high energy horse feeds for many years. Reported DE values for broken rice range from 15.1 to 18.2 MJ/kg DM (Hutton, 1990).

Fish 

Broken rice is a useful ingredient that can be used by smallholders to make farm made feeds for fish and shrimps. It was reported to have medium pelletising ability (5 in a scale of 10). However, recent research reported that broken rice might be suitable as a replacement for corn, wheat, and tapioca starch in producing high quality extruded floating or slow sinking fish pellets (Cruz et al., 2015). When cooked, broken rice can be used as a binder in moist diets (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Broken rice can be used as an energy source for catfish, tilapia, snakehead, milkfish and herbivore fish (Hertrampf et al., 2000).

Catfish

Broken rice is a valuable carbohydrate source for most catfish.

Striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)

Broken rice was included at 30% of the diet of striped catfish fingerlings and was reported to have the highest apparent digestibility of DM, OM, GE and CP which made it a potential replacer for fish meal (Da et al., 2013). Similar results had been reported in a former experiment at the same inclusion level for broken rice (Hien et al., 2010).

Jundiá catfish (Rhamdia quelen)

Jundia catfish, an omnivorous fish tending to be carnivorous could be fed on 30% broken rice in a digestibility trial. Broken rice had higher apparent digestibility coefficients than other plant products like ground maize, citrus pulp soybean hulls or wheat bran. However, fish showed no significant difference for specific growth rate, final body weight and fish DM content when they were fed either broken rice, ground maize, soybean hulls or wheat bran (Rodrigues et al., 2011).

Bagrid catfish (Mystus nemurus)

Bagrid catfish is a a freshwater fish with high protein requirements that also needs some carbohydrates in its diet. Bagrid catfish fry could receive broken rice as a source of carbohydrate at 17% without any deleterious effect on specific growth rate. Offering broken rice to bagrid catfish was as effective as feeding them with ground maize, and had better results than feeding sago flour or dextrin. This experiment also showed that cooking broken rice did not improve its nutritive value (Hamid et al., 2011).

Hybrid Clarias catfish (Clarias macrocephalus × C. gariepinus)

Broken rice was included in hybrid catfish diets as a carbohydrate source at 30, 37, 45, 53.5 and 60% during 60 days. It was reported to give better growth rates from 37 to 60% inclusion. Feed conversion ratio, protein eficiency and energy retention were similar and the highest between 37 and 53.5% inclusion (Jantrarotai et al., 1994).

Tilapia

Broken rice could be used to produce extruded feed for tilapia though it had lower floating index and water stability than cassava meal (Somboon et al., 2014). 

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

Nile tilapia could be fed on 30% broken rice in a digestibility trial. Broken rice had much higher apparent digestibility coefficients than other plant products like ground maize, citrus pulp soybean hulls or wheat bran. Nile tilapia showed significantly higher growth rate and final weight when fed on broken rice rather than on other plant products (Rodrigues et al., 2011). 

It was reported that average daily gain (ADG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were higher in Nile tilapias fed on 30-50% broken rice than on those fed on cassava meal (Somboon et al., 2014).

In tilapia extruded diets, broken rice included at 30% of the diet showed high ADC (apparent digestibility coefficients) values for energy (95.34%) and DM (96.45%) and medium ADC for protein (63%). Broken rice was reported to have the lowest available methionine and cystine compared to other carbohydrate sources (Guimaraes et al., 2008).

Red tilapia (Oreochromis spp.)

Good digestibility coefficients (84% for CP) were observed for broken rice and other starch-richer ingrediants such as cookie residues, macaroni residue, cassava root meal and soybean meal included at 30% dietary level in red tilapia (210 g) diets (Novoa et al., 2013).

Cyprinides

In cyprinides, broken rice could be effectively used at 30% of the diet as a source of energy (Jiang et al., 2011). However, compared to maize oil cake and rice polishings, broken rice resulted in lower average daily gain of major carp (Cirrhinus mrigala) fingerlings.

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 89.2 1.4 87.5 90.1 3
Crude protein % DM 10.4 1.7 7.8 13.2 32
Crude fibre % DM 0.4 0.4 0.1 1.8 19
NDF % DM 15.6 1
ADF % DM 1.4 1
Lignin % DM 0.8 1
Ether extract % DM 0.5 0.3 0.1 1.8 19
Ash % DM 0.6 0.2 0.4 1.4 19
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 0.5 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.2 3.1 3.2 2
Manganese mg/kg DM 8 1
Zinc mg/kg DM 12 1
 
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Alanine % protein 6.1 0.4 5.5 6.5 5
Arginine % protein 8.7 0.6 7.8 9.3 6
Aspartic acid % protein 10.3 0.9 8.8 10.9 5
Cystine % protein 1.3 0.4 1.1 2.1 6
Glutamic acid % protein 21.8 2.7 17.5 24.0 5
Glycine % protein 5.1 0.5 4.3 5.7 6
Histidine % protein 2.6 0.1 2.5 2.7 6
Isoleucine % protein 4.4 0.6 3.6 4.9 6
Leucine % protein 9.1 0.7 7.8 9.7 6
Lysine % protein 4.1 0.4 3.8 4.9 6
Methionine % protein 2.1 0.4 1.4 2.8 6
Phenylalanine % protein 5.9 0.2 5.8 6.2 6
Proline % protein 5.0 0.6 4.1 5.6 5
Serine % protein 5.3 0.7 4.0 5.8 5
Threonine % protein 3.9 0.3 3.7 4.5 6
Tryptophan % protein 0.9 1
Tyrosine % protein 3.5 0.4 2.9 4.1 6
Valine % protein 6.4 0.4 5.9 6.9 6
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 92.5 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 89.9 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 16.2 *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.6 *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 86.6 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 89.5 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Dewar, 1967; Friesecke, 1970; Juliano et al., 1964; Oyenuga, 1968; Ravindran et al., 1994; Robles et al., 1982; Sosulki et al., 1990; Woodman, 1945

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:55

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 87.4 1
Crude protein % DM 7.2 1
Crude fibre % DM 0.2 1
Ether extract % DM 0.3 1
Ash % DM 0.9 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.7 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 1.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 92.9 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 89.8 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.9 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Lim Han Kuo, 1967

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:55

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. http://www.feedipedia.org/node/748 Last updated on June 16, 2017, 16:35

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