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Crimson bluestem (Schizachyrium sanguineum)

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Crimson bluestem, crimson false bluestem, red autumn grass [English]; pasto popotillo, popotillo hirsuto [Spanish]; rooiherfsgras, rooidekgras [Afrikaans]; hutarda [Bissa]; yantaare, yantaaje [Fula-Fulfulde]; uonga [Grusi-Kasena]; jan datse, kyaure [Hausa]; pasi [Yoruba]

Synonyms 

Schizachyrium hirtiflorum Nees, Andropogon hirtiflorus (Nees) Kunth

Related feed(s) 
Description 

Crimson bluestem (Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.) Alston) is a tropical grass used for pasture.

Morphology

Schizachyrium sanguineum is a perennial grass. It is robust, tufted erect or creeping, sometimes shortly rhizomatous (Quattrocchi, 2006Hitchcock et al., 1951). Its erect culms can reach a height of 60-120 (-300) cm (Quattrocchi, 2006; Clayton et al., 2006). Culms are reddish in colour, sparingly branching at the upper nodes. The leaf blades are flat, linear and acute, 6-30 cm long, 2-4 mm wide. The inflorescence is racemose, 6-10 cm long, the base being included in the somewhat dilated sheath (Hitchcock et al., 1951). There are two types of spikelets: sessile spikelets, which are about 6 mm long, the awn being 10-15 mm long, and pedicellate spikelets which are much smaller (Quattrocchi, 2006Hitchcock et al., 1951). The pedicels and first glumes of sessile spikelets are hairy and red in colour. The rachis is straight and glabrous (Quattrocchi, 2006; Hitchcock et al., 1951). The latin name of the genus, "Schizachyrium", is derived from the ancient Greek "schizein" and "achyron" meaning "splitting chaff".

Uses

Crimson bluestem is mainly used as fodder: it provides good pasture when young. It can also be used for thatching and matting (Odinma et al., 2013; Quattrocchi, 2006).

Distribution 

Schizachyrium sanguineum is native to the American continent but it can be found in most tropical areas worldwide (USDA, 2016). It is found in open grassland, the Cerrado of Brazil, or open bushland of Australia. It can grow in sandy soils and on stony hillsides, near streams, wet stream sides, and river banks (Quattrocchi, 2006). In Côte d'Ivoire, Crimson bluestem is found on the sandy soils of savannahs and is more frequent on slopes. In these areas it was killed out by heavy grazing and would not grow in soils low in humus (Cesar, 1975).

Forage management 

Schizachyrium sanguineum is sensitive to heavy grazing. In West Africa, increasing the stocking rate significantly reduced the biomass, leaving no surplus for thatching for which it is traditionally used (Azarya et al., 1999).

Environmental impact 

Lehmann love grass competition

In Chihuahua, Mexico, Schizachyrium sanguineum was killed out from rangelands over a 20 year period, following the sowing of the invasive Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmannia) at a distance of 3000-4500 m from the native grasses (Sanchez Muñoz, 2009).

Fire sensitivity

The seeds are sensitive to fire. In native pastures where fire occurs, Schizachyrium sanguineum progressively disappears (Musso et al., 2014).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Schizachyrium sanguineum has a rather low protein content (2-8% of DM) and a high fibre content (crude fibre more than 30% of DM).

Ruminants 

Information about Schizachyrium sanguineum is scarce. It is generally considered as a useful native forage (Skerman et al., 1990) able to provide good fodder for cattle at all times, especially during the wet season, or in areas where it grows near streams, and remains green (Burkill, 1985). In the Eastern Llanos of Colombia, it was more available in well-drained native pastures where it provided up to about 180 kg DM/ha, and was among the most palatable native species (Hoyos et al., 1988). However, under some unspecified conditions, cattle are recorded as refusing it, even at the tender young stage of growth (Burkill, 1985).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 36.3 6.8 26.0 50.3 33  
Crude protein % DM 4.9 1.5 2.2 8.6 34  
Crude fibre % DM 39.0 3.2 33.0 45.4 31  
NDF % DM 74.0         *
ADF % DM 45.3         *
Lignin % DM 6.5         *
Ether extract % DM 1.7 0.6 0.8 3.4 34  
Ash % DM 8.9 2.4 4.2 13.3 33  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.0         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 3.8 0.7 2.8 5.0 33  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0 0.4 0.5 2.0 33  
Potassium g/kg DM 11.0 3.2 5.5 18.3 34  
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.2 0.3 1.6 2.8 33  
Manganese mg/kg DM 300   162 438 2  
Zinc mg/kg DM 13   12 15 2  
Copper mg/kg DM 3   2 3 2  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 57.0         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 54.5         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.8         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.0         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991

Last updated on 18/09/2016 12:58:48

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2017. Crimson bluestem (Schizachyrium sanguineum). Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/746 Last updated on April 26, 2017, 10:18

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)