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Live oak (Quercus virginiana)


Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Live oak, southern live oak, Virginia live oak [English]; encina del Sur [Spanish]; Virginia-Eiche, Lebens-Eiche [German]

Feed categories 
Related feed(s) 

The live oak (Quercus virginiana) is a shrubby to large perennial tree up to 20 m high that can span 50 m. It is an evergreen or almost evergreen tree.


The live oak is native to the South-Eastern USA (Virginia and Carolina) and is spread over Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas. It can also be found in Northern Mexico and in Costa Rica (Ecocrop, 2009).

Quercus virginiana grows in moist to dry sites. It grows best in well-drained sandy soils and loams and will also grow in clay. It can tolerate occasional floods and hurricanes, and it is resistant to salt spray and moderate soil salinity. It can resist to dry season during 5 to 7 months.

Environmental impact 

As its crown provides a dense cover, Quercus virginiana prevents fires by discouraging the growth of a flammable understory.

Nutritional aspects

The nutritive value of Quercus virginiana is limited by voluntary intake rather than by digestibility. Goats can eat enough for maintenance level but not enough to sustain pregnancy or lactation (Riddle et al., 1999).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 93.8 1
Crude protein % DM 9.9 1
Crude fibre % DM 31.9 1
Ether extract % DM 2.8 1
Ash % DM 7.1 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.5 *
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 7.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.3 1
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 18.5 1
ME ruminants (FAO, 1982) MJ/kg DM 3.2 1
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 0.0 1

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Fraps, 1924

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:19

Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Live oak (Quercus virginiana). Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://feedipedia.org/node/107 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:32

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
Image credits