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White lupin (Lupinus albus) forage

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Lupin, white lupin, Egyptian lupin [English]; lupin blanc [French]; weisse lupine [German]; lupino bianco [Italian]; altramuz blanco, chocho, chorcho,entremozo, lupino blanco [Spanish]; tremoceiro, tremoceiro branco, tremoceiro da Beira, tremoço [Portuguese]; الترمس الأبيض [Arabic]; Люпин белый [Russian]; 白羽扇豆 [Chinese]

Feed categories 
Description 

White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is one of the 200 species of lupins, a genus of multipurpose annual legumes grown throughout the world both for their seeds used in feed and food, and for forage. Lupin seeds can be an alternative to soybean in all livestock species due to their high content in good quality protein (in the 30-40% range). Lupins also contribute to the sustainability of cropping systems (Lucas et al., 2015). The other main cultivated lupin species are the yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), the blue lupin (or narrow leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) and the pearl lupin (Lupinus mutabilis) (Jansen, 2006). 

Morphology

Lupinus albus is an erect, bushy, annual legume that can reach 1.2 m high, with an indeterminate growing habit. It is many branched and deeply taprooted. The root can grow 70 cm deep. The stems are coarse, branched, slightly silky. The leaves are alternate, medium sized and digitally compound, bearing 5-9 obovate leaflets, 2-6 cm long x 0.5-2 cm broad, smooth on the upper face, hairy on the lower. The inflorescence is a terminal, 3-30 cm long, false raceme that bears many flowers. The flowers are pedicellated, typically papillonaceous, white to violet in colour. The corolla is 15-18 mm x 8-12 mm, the upper lip entire and the lower slightly 3-toothed. The pods are 3-6 seeded, narrowly oblong, laterally compressed, (6-) 9-15 cm long × 1-2 cm wide, yellow in colour (Clark, 2014; El Bassam, 2010; Jansen, 2006).

Uses

White lupin provides seeds for food and feed, fodder and green manure (Jansen, 2006). The seeds of earlier, alkaloid-rich bitter varieties used to be detoxified by soaking before being cooked for food and were consumed by low-income classes or during times of scarcity (Jansen, 2006). Modern sweet varieties do not require detoxification and are used in high-value specialties to enrich pastas, cake mixtures, cereals, and other baked goods (Clark, 2014). White lupin seeds are used to feed livestock and aquaculture species. The plant may also be grazed during late winter and early spring or cut for forage or silage. As a legume, white lupin plant is used for green manuring (in Southern Europe, it is traditionnally used in vineyards and olive plantations), and for soil improvement (Jansen, 2006; Duke, 1981). White lupin is a good honey plant and an attractive annual ornamental (Jansen, 2006).

Distribution 

Lupins (Lupinus spp.) are separated into New world species and Old world  species. White, blue and yellow lupins are Old world species while pearl lupin is an American species. Lupins occupy almost all kinds of habitats from sea level to altitudes up to 4000 m (Wolko et al., 2010). White lupin originates from South-Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It was cultivated in Greece, Italy and Egypt and Cyprus 2000 years BCE (Terres Univia, 2017; Clark, 2014). It may have been first cultivated in Egypt was and later domesticated in Greece, where exists a larger biodiversity and a higher number of wild-growing forms (Clark, 2014). However, the breeding of sweet cultivars did not start until the 1930s (Terres Univia, 2017).

White lupin is a winter growing legume that can be found in the wild on disturbed and poor soils where competition from other species is reduced (Clark, 2014). When cultivated it can be suitable in places too poor for faba bean (Jansen, 2006). It is mainly cultivated in Northern Europe, Russia, arid Australian plains and Andean Highlands of Chile. Spring types can be grown in the Northern Midwestern and in Northeastern USA (Clark, 2014). It is occasionnally grown in Africa, including Kenya, Ethiopia, Tanzania, Zimbabwe, South Africa, and Mauritius (Jansen, 2006).

White lupin grows from sea level up to an altitude of 740 m (Ecocrop, 2017). In Ethiopia, it is cultivated between 1500 and 3000 m altitude (Jansen, 2006). It does better in places where average monthly temperatures during the growing season range from 18°C to 24°C and where rainfall is about 400-1000 mm during the same period. White lupin is tolerant of frost but temperatures of -6°C to -8°C during germination and -3° to -5°C at flowering stage are deleterious to the crop. Moisture deficiency is harmful during the reproductive period (Jansen, 2006). White lupin does well on moderately fertile, well-drained, light or medium textured and mildly acidic or mildly calcareous soils with a pH ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 (-7.5) (Clark, 2014; Jansen, 2006). It does not do well on heavy clay, waterlogged and alkaline soils, though some cultivars have more tolerance of heavy soils and do better on saline soils than other crops (Clark, 2014). Under limiting P conditions, lupins form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free P from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Forage management 

Yields

The average seed yield of white lupin range from 0.5 to 4 t/ha (Jansen, 2006). In France, winter lupin were reported to yield about 4.5-5.0 t/ha and summer lupin about 3.5-4.0 tons/ha (Arvalis, 2014).

Crop management

White lupin seeds intended for sowing should be tested for anthracnose infection and inoculated with Rhizobium lupini if the crop has not been cultivated in the stand before. Sowing rates are variable and depend on climatic conditions, soils, and season type. Sowing rates recommended for winter lupin are 20-30 seeds/m² in France and 50 seeds/m² in the UK (Arvalis, 2014; PGRO, 2014). Seeds should be drilled 30-40 mm deep (no deeper than 50 mm) in a good tilth and moist seedbed in non-compacting soil (PGRO, 2014). In Ethiopia, farmers usually broadcast the seeds of white lupin at 34-40 seeds/m² in July or September (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010).

Though white lupin is mainly sown as a sole crop, it can be also grown in association (Arvalis, 2014; PGRO, 2014; Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010). In in organic systems in Europe, white lupin can be cultivated with oats, barley and triticale, which helps controlling weeds and was shown to yield 2.3 t grains/ha (Milleville, 2014). In Ethiopia, white lupin can be cultivated in mixed stands with niger (Guizotia abyssinica), finger millet (Eleusine coracana), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) or maize (Zea mays) (Likawent Yeheyis et al., 2010).

White lupin is a slow growing legume that needs 11 months to become mature and to be harvested. Winter white lupin should be sown as soon as possible at the end of summer to promote sufficient growth and gain enough cold resistance before winter (Arvalis, 2014). In France, spring lupins should be sown on warm, moist seedbed for better development at higher seed rates (45-60 seeds/m²), with smaller distance between rows than for winter types (Arvalis, 2014; PGRO, 2014).

White lupin is higly susceptible to anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides or C. acutatum), a common seed-borne disease in countries with humid summers. Anthracnose spreads rapidly by wind, rain, soil-borne spores, clothing and equipment. It can cause almost total crop loss when the infection is severe and left untreated. However, anthracnose is easy to detect and can be effeciently controlled with fungicide applications (PGRO, 2014).

Environmental impact 

N-fixing legume and sustainable P management

Romans used to grow lupins (Lupinus spp.) as a green manuring crop for improving soils (Burtt, 1981). Lupins are N-fixing legumes that are reported to fix 300-400 kg N/ha, in Europe and Australia (Jansen, 2006). Lupins are beneficial to the next crop. Organic rye yielded 0.5 t/ha more when preceded by yellow lupin than when preceded by spring beans (PGRO, 2014).

Lupins are valuable legumes for sustainable P management: in soils depleted in available P, lupin form specialized cluster root structures and/or release P-mobilizing carboxylates that free it from insoluble forms (Lambers et al., 2012).

Soil improver and phytoremediation

Thanks to its deep taproot, the lupin plant improves soil texture and drainage. Lupins can be used  for phytoremediation. Lupins may extend the phytoremediation period and increase the bioavailability of metals in polluted soils under recovery (Fumagalli et al., 2014). In mixed cultures of bioenergy crops, lupins (Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius) have the ability to mobilize trace elements during and make these elements available for co-cultured species. Lupines mobilize trace elements by carboxylates and enzymes exudation and by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. In a comparison between white and blue lupin for trace element mobilization, white lupin was more effective than blue lupin and thus recommended for phytoremediation (Hentschel et al., 2016).

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

Lupinosis

Lupinosis outbreaks are susceptible to occur in sheep and cattle when white lupin was fed as dried forage. Lupinosis is due to phomopsins, a class of toxins produced by fungal infestation of lupin plants by Diaporthe toxica (Jansen, 2006). These toxins cause severe damage to the liver, resulting in loss of appetite, lethargy, jaundice and often death. Sheep are more sensitive to lupinosis than cattle. Lupinosis can be prevented by using Diaporthe toxica-resistant cultivars of white lupines or by limiting lupine intake by livestock (Clark, 2014; Jansen, 2006). Diaporthe toxica infestations have been reported in 12% of white lupin samples (out of 171) in Australia (Cowley et al., 2010).

Rabbits 

Lupinus albus whole plant is a forage known in Europe to be useful in rabbit feeding since a long time. Used as only feed, its nutritive value was estimated similar to that of green alfalfa (Brüggemann, 1939 cited by Voris et al., 1940). Effectively dried lupin forage used as the main source of fibre in a rabbit diet induced growth rate and feed efficiency similarly or even better than alfalfa meal used in the same conditions (Harries et al., 1999).

Green lupin used as forage distributed ad libitum may replace 20% of a concentrate complete feed without alteration of growth rate of fattening rabbits But if the daily allowance of concentrate represents only 60% of the spontaneous intake of the ad libitum control, the spontaneous intake of the additional green lupin forage is not sufficient to permit the same growth rate (El-Gendy, 1999). 

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This datasheet is pending revision and updating; its contents are currently derived from FAO's Animal Feed Resources Information System (1991-2002) and from Bo Göhl's Tropical Feeds (1976-1982).

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 20.2 21.6 11.1 92.0 13  
Crude protein % DM 21.5 2.9 18.3 27.9 13  
Crude fibre % DM 23.5 3.4 17.1 28.1 12  
NDF % DM 31.1       1  
ADF % DM 25.6       1  
Lignin % DM 4.1       1  
Ether extract % DM 3.1   2.6 3.6 2  
Ash % DM 8.0 2.7 6.3 13.9 12  
Total sugars % DM 16.3       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.9         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 12.7   12.6 12.8 2  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 2.6   2.5 2.7 2  
Potassium g/kg DM 26.1       1  
Sodium g/kg DM 3.6       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 71.7 2.3 71.7 82.0 10 *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 68.6 2.2 68.6 79.0 10 *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.0         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.3         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 84.3 2.0 81.6 86.6 10  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bhannasiri, 1970; Haugen et al., 1992; Holm, 1971; Mbugua et al., 2008

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:29

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Crude protein % DM 5.9       1  
Crude fibre % DM 55.3       1  
NDF % DM 82.4       1  
ADF % DM 63.8       1  
Lignin % DM 12.6       1  
Ash % DM 4.1       1  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 4.3       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.0       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.8       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 123       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 10       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 46.3         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 5.8       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 3.3         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Crude protein % DM 6.7       1  
Crude fibre % DM 49.9       1  
NDF % DM 77.6       1  
ADF % DM 58.3       1  
Lignin % DM 9.9       1  
Ash % DM 4.7       1  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 6.6       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.2       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.7       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 104       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 34       1  
               
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, Ruminant % 49.5         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 6.6       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 11.8         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Abreu et al., 1998

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:44:30

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

DATASHEET UNDER CONSTRUCTION. DO NOT QUOTE. https://feedipedia.org/node/24347 Last updated on July 18, 2019, 12:39