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Castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds, oil meal and by-products

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Castor plant, castor bean, castor oil plant, castor-oil plant, palma christi [English]; wonderboom [Dutch]; Wunderbaum [German]; ricin, grande épurge; ricin commun [French]; Ρίκινος [Greek]; mamona, mamoneira, mamoeiro, carrapateira, carrapato, ricino [Portuguese]; hierba mora, higuera del diablo, ricino, ricino comun, tartago [Spanish]; Hint yağı bitkisi[Turkish]; קיקיון מצוי [Hebrew]; خرّوب [Arabic]; کرچک [Farsi]; kasterolieboom [Afrikans]; ጉሎ[Amaric]; Zirman [Hausa]; अरंडी [Hindi]; jarak (tumbuhan) [Indonesian]; ആവണക്ക് [Malayalam]; Pokok jarak [Malaysian]; Lansina [Tagalog]; 英语 [Chinese]; トウゴマ[Japanese]; 피마자 [Korean]; Thầu dầu [Vietnamese]

Products

  • Castor seeds, castor beans
  • Castor oil meal, castor oilmeal, castor oil cake, castor oilcake, castor bean cake, castor bean meal, castor meal, castor cake
  • Castor seed hulls, castor hulls, castor bean husks, castor husks

Like other oil by-products, the term "oil meal" often designates the product obtained after solvent extraction. However, this is not always the case and literature papers are sometimes unclear about the extraction process. For the sake of clarity, this datasheet will use the term "castor oil cake" for all the by-products of castor oil extraction .

Description 

The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.), also called castor bean plant or castor oil plant, is a shrub or small tree cultivated in tropical and temperate regions for its seeds rich in an oil valued for its many industrial applications: lubricants (the Castrol automotive lubricant is a contraction of "castor oil"), hydraulic fluids, paints, coatings, inks, cold resistant plastics, waxes and polishes, nylon, pharmaceuticals, emollients, perfumes, etc. (Modzelevich, 2020). Castor oil was used for lighting (though the smell is unpleasant), and in medicine as a purge or to treat sores. The castor plant is also an energy crop used to produce biodiesel (Razzazi et al., 2015).

The extraction of castor oil yields a protein-rich by-product, called castor oil cake or castor oil meal. Another by-product is the castor seed hulls (or husks), a fibrous product. A major issue with Ricinus communis is the presence of toxic compounds in all the parts of the plant. In particular, castor seeds contain ricin, a lethal cytotoxin. While castor oil cake is valuable for animal feeding, it must be detoxified before use.

Distribution 

The origin of Ricinus communis is debated due to its wide distribution since ancient times, and because of the rapidity of its establishment as a native plant. It may have originated in North-East Africa and it was grown for its oil in Egypt about 6000 years ago. It spread through the Mediterranean, the Middle East and India at an early date, and it may have spread to Southern Africa as far back as the Stone Age. The castor plant is cited in the Bible in the Book of Jonah 4: 6-7: "And the LORD God prepared a plant and made it come up over Jonah, that it might be shade for his head to deliver him from his misery. So Jonah was very grateful for the plant. But as morning dawned the next day God prepared a worm, and it so damaged the plant that it withered" (Modzelevich, 2020).

Ricinus communis is found in most drier areas of the tropics and subtropics and in many temperate areas with a hot summer. It is indigenous to north-eastern tropical Africa, especially in Ethiopian areas below 2400 m altitude (Seegeler, 1983). It naturally occurs across the African continent, from the Atlantic coast to the Red sea, from Tunisia to South Africa and in the Indian Ocean. It was introduced to Florida during the 18th century and was naturalized in Hawaii not later than 1819. It is becoming an abundant weed in Florida, California and Hawaii (Rojas-Sandoval et al., 2014).

The main producers of castor oil are India, Brazil, and China, which accounted for 93% of the world production in 2008. In 2019, India was by far the first producer of castor with 2 million t, followed by Brazil (31,000 t) and China (27,000 t) (Statista, 2020). The worlwide demand for castor oil increased by 50% from 1985 (400,000 t) to 2010 (610,000 t)(Patel et al., 2016). It reached 813.200 t in 2018 and was expected to grow yearly by 4.1% between 2019 and 2025 (GVR, 2020).

Processes 

Castor oil extraction

Castor seeds (improperly called "beans") have a high oil content of about 30-50%. The first operation of the oil extraction process is the removal of the the spiny husks by drying or with a dehulling machinery. The dehulled seeds are then cleaned and screened for foreign materials (stones, sand, branches, husks wastes and other impurities). The cleaned seeds are heated with a steam-jacketed press to harden the kernels, and then dried prior to extraction. The extraction is done through a screw or hydraulic press. Pressing can be done at low or high temperature. Low temperature pressing results in 45% recovery of oil while higher temperatures allow up to 80% recovery of oil. One ton of castor seed yields about of 300-500 kg oil and 500-700 kg castor oil cake. The residual oil in the cake can be further extracted by solvent extraction (Patel et al., 2016).

Detoxication processes

Because the ricin present in the endosperm is concentrated in the by-products, raw castor oil cake is toxic and must be detoxified. In countries where there is an important castor oil production, interest in using the protein-rich cake in animal feeding has led to the development numerous detoxification processes: physical, chemical, and biological.

The efficiency of a detoxification process can be highly variable because the initial levels of ricin in the cake were very different ranging from 50 mg to 1144 mg (Borja et al., 2017; Silva et al., 2015; Cobianchi et al., 2012; Diniz et al., 2010). Treatments with NaOH were found to be effective but the detoxified oilcakes resulting from those treatments were not readily consumed by livestock and they increased water consumption probably due to excessive Na intake (Araujo et al., 2019; Araujo et al., 2018; Anandan et al., 2005). In Brazil and India, most feeding trials since the 2000s have been carried out with castor oil cake detoxified by a method based on lime (CaO) application. A method often reported in the literature consists in soaking castor seed cake in a solution containing 40 to 60 g CaO per kg of cake for 8 to 12 hours (about one night), and then drying the resulting product, which should no longer contain ricin or ricin in amounts low enough for the product to be safe (Anandan et al., 2005).

Treatments Initial level of ricin % of ricin reduction References
Physical    
Steaming: 30 or 60 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Boiling: 30 or 60 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Autoclaving: 1 atm., 30 min or 1 atm., 60 min 388 mg/kg 100 % Anandan et al., 2005
Heating: 100°C, 30 min or 120°C, 25 min 388 mg/kg   Anandan et al., 2005
Chemical treatments (for 1 kg)      
Soaking in 10 l water during 3, 6, or 12 h 388 mg/kg 65, 86, and 84% Anandan et al., 2005
Ammonia :7.5 ml or 12.5 ml 388 mg/kg 51 and 59% Anandan et al., 2005
Formaldehyde: 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg 39 and 81% Anandan et al., 2005
Lime (CaO): 10, 20 or 40 g lime 388 mg/kg 67, 63, and 100% Anandan et al., 2005
Sodium chloride (common salt, NaCl): 5, 10 or 20 g 388 mg/kg 82, 86, and 91% Anandan et al., 2005
Tannic acid: 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg 54 and 27% Anandan et al., 2005
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH): 2.5, 5 or 10 g 388 mg/kg 82, 86, and 91% Anandan et al., 2005
Lime: 6 % during12 h

50, 1004, 1143 mg/kg

93 to 100% Silva et al., 2015;
Cobianchi et al., 2012;
Diniz et al., 2010
Physico-chemical treatments      
Lime: 1-4%, in combination with autoclaving (1 atm. during 30 min) 117 mg/kg 91 to 100% Borja et al., 2017
Lime: 1, 2 or 7% in combination with extrusion   100 % ricin destruction and allergenicity destruction at 7% lime Ascheri et al., 2005 cited by Lago, 2009
CaHPO4: 6 % in combination with autoclaving (1 atm during 1 h) 799 mg/kg 91 to 100 % Furtado et al., 2012
Biological treatments      
Solid-state fermentation process using Penicillium simplissimum   100% + 16% reduction in allergenicity Godoy et al., 2009
Forage management 

Yields

Worldwide average seed yield of castor plant is about 1 t/ha, with a maximum of about 3 t/ha (Maroyi, 2007). In Sicily (Italy), castor plants cultivated under irrigation yielded 3.45 t seeds/ha and the seed oil content ranged from 45% to 48%, depending on cultivars (Anastasi et al., 2014). 

Environmental impact 

A mixture of castor hulls and a N-rich material such as castor oil meal could be used as organic fertilizer (Lima et al., 2011).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Castor oil cake

Castor oil cake is a variable product due to the variety of processes involved in their production and detoxification. It is typically rich in protein, with a large range of values from 25% to more than 50% DM. The fibre content is also highly variable as it depends on the amount of hulls left in the cake. NDF content varies from 30% to 60% DM and there are contradictory values for lignin, with very high (15-30%) and very low (< 5% DM) values being reported. The residual oil content depends on the extraction process. Screw-pressed castor oil cake has about 6-8% residual oil and double-pressed cake 5-7% (EFSA, 2008). However, oil cakes containing 10 to 20% residual oil have been reported (Silva et al., 2018; Alves et al., 2016). Solvent-extracted castor oil meal should contains less than 1% oil (Guimaraes et al., 2016). Detoxification processes involving chemicals have a notable effect on mineral composition. Particularly, the use of lime (CaO) can increase the calcium content of the meal up to 1-3 % DM.

Castor seed hulls

Castor seed hulls are a fibrous product (NDF content from 42% to 80% DM) with a low nutritional value.

Potential constraints 

Toxic substances

The castor plant produces several toxic substances, particularly ricin, a lethal and cytotoxic lectin notorious for its potential use as a biological weapon (Maroyi, 2007).

Ricin

The endosperm of castor seeds contains about 1-5% of ricin. Ricin is found only in the endosperm and is no present in the oil as it not oil-soluble (Johnson et al., 2005; Lord et al., 1994). Ricin is a glycoprotein lectin composed of 2 chains, A and B, linked by a disulphide bond (Audi et al., 2005; Akande et al., 2016). The B chain is a lectin and binds to galactose-containing glycoproteins and glycolipids expressed on the surface of cells, facilitating the entry of ricin into the cytosol. The A chain inhibits protein synthesis by irreversibly inactivating ribosomes which prevents chain elongation of polypeptides and leads to cell death (Audi et al., 2005). Ricin structure and its mode of action have been extensively reviewed (Lord et al., 1994). The toxicity of ricin mainly consists in the inhibition of protein synthesis, but other mechanisms like apoptosis pathways, direct cell membrane damage, alteration of membrane structure and function, and inflammatory mediators are also described (Al-Tamimi et al., 2008). Symptoms of ricin poisoning begin within hours after exposure by ingestion or inhalation (Haritha et al., 2019). They may include stomach irritation, vomiting, bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, increased heart rate, low blood pressure, profuse sweating, collapse, convulsions, and death within a few days (Salihu et al., 2014a). Symptoms and their intensity depends on the animal species. In horses, signs include: sweating, trembling, incoordination, vigorous heart action that shakes the whole body but pulse weak, muscle spams, erection of penis or clitoris, abdominal colic and shallow respiration. In cattle, signs similar to those of horses have been observed as well as elevated temperature, and diarrhoea stained with blood. In swine, vomiting occurs (which often saves their life of animal), and the skin of ears, flanks and hams becomes cyanotic. In poultry, depression is observed; feathers are ruffled, the wings are drooping, comb and wattles are greyish. In hens, egg production is stopped and moulting occurs. Birds that do not quickly die lose weight (Weiss, 1971).

The toxicity of castor seeds due to ricin is variable and depends upon the stage of maturity of the plant and on the type of animals. Lethal doses of castor seeds have been reported for several animal species in the table below (Weiss, 1971).

Species Lethal dosis (g/kg BW)
Horses 0.1
Cattle 2.0
Sheep 1.2
Goats 5.5
Pigs 1.4
Hens 14.0
Geese 0.4
Rabbits 1.0

In ruminants, the level of ricin intake should be lower than 3.06 mg/kg body weight (Diniz et al., 2010).

Other substances

Ricinine is an alkaloid found mainly in the leaves but it exists in all parts of the plant, including the seed pericarp (Severino et al., 2012). Some complexes of protein and polysaccharides (Allergen CB-1A) have been referred to as allergenic, but the main concern is with people handling castor bean products and animals were not reported to suffer from allergies (Candido et al., 2008; Anandan et al., 2005).

Toxicity of castor oil cake

Non-detoxified castor oil cake can contain significant amounts of ricin, ranging from 12 to 1144 mg/kg DM depending on the extraction process. It is thus recommended to use it with caution, or not to use it at all (Anandan et al., 2005; Gowda et al., 2009; Diniz et al., 2010; Oliveira et al., 2010; Cobianchi et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2015; Borja et al., 2017). For detoxified castor oil cake, the risk depends on the efficiency of the detoxification process. Ideally, detoxification should result in an oil cake with a very little or no ricin, and thus safe for animals. However, this may not be the case, and residual ricin may still pose a risk, so caution is advised.

Ruminants 

Castor oil cake

The utilization of castor oil cake for ruminants has been extensively studied in castor oil-producing countries, particularly Brazil and India. Those trials have tested various detoxification processes or compared detoxified and non-detoxified castor oil cakes. The general assessment of detoxified castor oil cake is that it has a good nutritive value and can be a valuable protein source that can partly replace soybean meal, notably in beef cattle, sheep and goats. In several studies, detoxified castor oil cakes contained residual ricin below the toxic threshold for ruminants (3.06 mg/kg body weight) and including up to 20% detoxified cake in ruminant diets was found both safe and suitable for performance.

The composition of castor oil cake should be taken into account when feeding livestock due to the high variability in its fibre content. Fibre-rich, and particularly lignin-rich castor oil cake can reduce the digestibility of the diet if the diet is not balanced relative to fibre (Cobianchi et al., 2012; Nicory et al., 2015a; Palmieri et al., 2016; Borja et al., 2017; Matos et al., 2018). Castor oil cake was found a good protein source when the diet was properly balanced ( Oliveira et al., 2010; Gionbelli et al., 2014; Furtado et al., 2015; Alves et al., 2016; Menezes et al., 2016; Souza et al., 2016; Lima et al., 2020). Protein degradability is lower than that of soybean meal and diets must take this aspect into account so that they do not hinder rumen bacteria development by availability of soluble nitrogen, and consequently diet digestibility.

Digestibility

Effective DM degradability of castor oil cake were 55% (untreated) and 51% (detoxified with CaO), which is low compared to 77% for soybean meal (Diniz et al., 2011). NDF degradability was also low (16% for untreated cake and 18% for detoxified cake) compared to 54% for soybean meal (Oliveira et al., 2010). Protein degradability for untreated cake ranged from 62-63% (Oliveira et al., 2010) to 72% (Diniz et al., 2011) and decreased to 57-58% after CaO detoxification. Again, those values are lower than the values (66-71%) reported in those experiments for soybean meal.

Cattle
Dairy cattle

Dairy cows fed with 3 to 15% (dietary level) of detoxified castor oil cake, had variable DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk yield. In some trials those parameters decreased at 8 to 15% levels (Cobianchi et al., 2012; Porto et al., 2016) but in others there was no effect up to 12.5% (Souza et al., 2016).

Feeding trials with dairy cattle

DCC: detoxified castor oil cake; SBM: soybean meal; DMI: dry matter intake; DMD: dry matter digestibility; MY: milk yied

Country Breed Detoxification process Experiment Inclusion rate Results Reference
Pakistan Mehsani Buffalo 40 g/kg Lime, extrusion cooking DCC included at 10% into the concentrate, 75 d 100 g/kg conc. No effects on total intake, milk yield and composition; Bhagwat et al., 2012
Brazil Holstein (540 kg; 100 DIM; 20.3 kg MY 60 g/kg CaO 12h and 48h sun-dried DCC replaced SBM in total mixed ration, 21 d 0, 49.6, 99.3 or 148.8 g/kg diet total DMI decreases with the two higher levels (15.4 vs 16.8 kg/d/c); DMD decreases with 49.6 and upper levels from 67.3% to 59.2%; MY and protein content decrease with the two higher levels, but not fat. Cobianchi et al., 2012
Brazil Holstein x Zebu (509 kg; 100 DIM; 25 kg MY 60 g Ca(OH)2, and 8h 60°C DCC replaced SBM in concentrate with a diet of 56% concentrate and 44% forage (Brachiaria brizantha pasture), 21 d 0, 7.6, 15 or 22.3 g/kg conc. No differences in DMI, DMD, MY, milk composition and grazing behavior Souza et al., 2016; Souza et al., 2017
Brazil Holstein x Zebu (465 kg; 100 DIM; 15 kg MY 60 g/kg CaO 12h and sun-dried DCC replace SBM in concentrate with a diet of 56% concentrate and 44% forage (Brachiaria decumbens pasture), 84 d 0, 7.6, 15 or 22.3 g/kg conc. DMI decreases with the two higher levels from 13.5 kg to 11.9; but no change in grazing behaviour Porto et al., 2016
Beef cattle and growing cattle

With fattening or growing cattle, the full substitution of soybean meal with castor oil cake did not alter average daily weight gain except when the level of castor oil cake was 50% or more into the concentrate. Generally, DMI wa s not modified except when the forage is of high quality (> protein 15% DM).

Feeding trials with beef cattle and growing cattle

DCC: detoxified castor oil cake; UCC: untreated castor oil cake; SBM: soybean meal; TMR: total mixed ration; DMI: dry matter intake; DMD: dry matter digestibility; MY: milk yied; ADG: average daily gain

Country Breed Detoxification process Experiment Inclusion rate Results Reference
Brazil Crossbred Zebu (360 kg) 60 g/kg CaO, 12h and 48h sun-dried DCC replaced 0 to 100% of SBM in a TMR based on maize silage 0, 30.5, 60.9, 91.4 g/kg TMR No difference in DMI; ADG tends to increase with DCC level; carcass fat% decreases with DCC level whereas bone% increases and muscle does not change ; carcass yield in relation to body weight decreases with increasing level of DCC (from 54 to 51%); No difference was observed on DMD or CP digestibility of the diet Diniz et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011
Brazil Crossbred Zebu (360 kg) No treatment UCC replaced 100% of SBM in a TMR based on maize silage 91.4 g/kg TMR No difference in DMI; ADG tends to increase with UCC level; carcass fat% is lower with UCC whereas bone% is higher and muscle does not change; carcass yield in relation to body weight is lower COC than with SBM (52% vs 54%); No difference was observed on DMD or CP digestibility of the diet Diniz et al., 2010; Diniz et al., 2011
Brazil Heifer (Nellore and crossbred zebu), 210 kg 60 g/kg CaO DCC replaced 0 to 100% of SBM in a concentrate offered with Brachiaria decumbens pasture 0 to 50% into the concentrate No difference in the DMI or ADG up to 67% replacement; with 100% replacement, both decrease; DMD and CP digestibility decrease with DCC level. Barros et al., 2011
Brazil Heifers (Holstein × Zebu crossbred, 257 kg) 60 g Ca(OH)2 DCC replacde 0 to 100% of SBM in a concentrate offered (700g/100 kg BW) with Brachiaria decumbens pasture 0 to 27.7% into the concentrate Pasture DMI and DMD and CP digestibility decrease with increasing level of DCC particularly for the higher level; no effects on ADG or carcass dressing; fat cover was much lower with the higher level of DCC Matos et al., 2018
Sheep

In most trials, detoxified castor oil cake was included into a total mixed ration up to 30% with a proportion of concentrate ranging from 25 to 60% and low forage quality (less than 10% of crude protein). Castor oil cake did not alter DM intake and DM digestibility, but average daily weight gain decreased except in two trials (Borja et al., 2017; Pompeu et al., 2012). Carcass yield (hot or cold) and characteristics were either unchanged (Gionbelli et al., 2014; Gowda et al., 2009) or lower compared to those obtained with soybean meal (Borja et al., 2017; Menezes et al., 2016; Alves et al., 2016; Pompeu et al., 2012). Detoxified castor oil cake replacing soybean meal into a concentrate (14.5%) and offered to ewes fed with Guinea grass did not alter fertility, prolificacy, lamb weight or lamb growth (Silva et al., 2014). Studies did not report adverse effects of detoxified castor oil cake on animal health. Metabolite, liver or renal enzymes confirm these observations. In conclusion, detoxified castor oil cake can be included into a diet for fattening animals up to 20% (on DM basis) with no negative effects.

Feeding trials with sheep

DCC: detoxified castor oil cake; UCC: untreated castor oil cake; SBM: soybean meal; TMR: total mixed ration; DMI: dry matter intake; DMD: dry matter digestibility; MY: milk yied; ADG: average daily gain

Country Breed Detoxification process Experiment Inclusion rate Results Reference
Brazil Mixed-breed castrated male sheep (56 kg) 40 g/kg Ca(OH)2, 18h and 5h 60°C TMR including 60% maize silage and concentrate with 15% SBM or replaced with expeller or solvent-extracted DCC OR UCC; 21 d 15% in TMR No difference in DMI (although DMI of DCC tends to be higher than for UCC) and no difference in DMD but CP digestibility tends to be higher with DCC Oliveira et al., 2010
Brazil Sheep 22.7 kg and 60 kg 60 g/kg Ca(OH)2, 24h and 12h sun-dried TMR including 40% Cenchrus ciliaris hay + 60% conc with SBM or DCC; 20 d 0, 4.7, 8.5 or 13.3% in TMR No health problem and good rumen environment Menezes et al., 2012
Brazil Crossbred Morada Nova male lambs (18.7 kg) Autoclaving, 15 psi, 123°C, 60 min TMR with 50% Bermuda grass hay and 50 concentrate including SBM or DCC, 60-100 d 0, 5.1, 10.8 or 16.8% in TMR ADG decreases with increasing DCC level (from 197 to 130 g/d); carcass yield also decreases with DCC level and in both cases more with total replacement of SBM with DCC (16.8%); DCC can replace SBM up to 67% or 10.8% in this TMR Pompeu et al., 2012
Brazil Crossbred Morada Nova female and male lambs (19.8 kg) Autoclaving, 15 psi, 60 min; 60 g/kg CaCO3; 60 g/kg CaHPO4, 8h, sun-dried; 10 g/kg urea; 7 d, sun-dried TMR with 50% Bermuda grass hay and 50 concentrate including SBM or DCC, 21 d 7.94% in TMR No difference in DMI (4.21 to 4.45 kg/100 kg BW) or DMD (66 to 68%); according to the treatment, nitrogen balance is slightly different Furtado et al., 2012; 2015
Brazil Crossbred lambs (20 kg) 60 g/kg Ca(OH)2 TMR with 60% maize silage and 40 concentrate including SBM or DCC (wet or dried), 70 d 9 or 18% in TMR No difference of DMI, DMD or ADG between DCC and SBM; DMI is higher with 18% than 9% but DMD is not different; no difference in carcass characteristics Gionbelli et al., 2014
Brazil Crossbred Santa Inês × Morada Nova ewes (33 kg) mating, gestation up to weaning CaO DCC replaced 0 or100% SBM in diet based on Guinea grass hay and concentrate, 290 d 14.5% in concentrate DCC had no effect on fertility (83 to 85%) or prolificacy or BW at birth. No effect on lamb growth and BW at weaning Silva et al., 2014
Brazil Santa Ines male lambs (4-6 mo, 26 kg) 40 g/kg Ca(OH)2, 12h, 48h sun-dried DCC replaced 0 to 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Guinea grass hay, 72 d 0, 6.75, 13.5, 20.25 or 27% in TMR No difference in DMI with increasing levels (28.6 to 30.2 g/kg BW) but DMD decrease from 68% to 53% with increasing DCC level and simultaneously with increasing indigestible NDF and ADF; ADG is not different (140 to 170 g/d) Nicory et al., 2015a; Nicory et al., 2015b
Brazil Cross bred Santa Ines male lambs (5 mo, 19.8 kg) Autoclaving at 15 psi, 60 min DCC replaced 0 or 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Guinea grass hay, 72 d 0 or 12% in TMR No difference in DMI (0.96 vs 0.99 kg/d) or DMD (70 vs 69%); ADG is not different (190 vs 217 g/d) but hot and cold carcass and some component of the carcass were lower than with SBM Alves et al., 2016
Brazil Male lambs (10 mo, 21.7 kg) 60 g/kg Ca(OH)2, 24h, 12h sun-dried DCC replaced 0 to 45% SBM in TMR including 40% Guinea grass hay, 80 d 0, 4.7, 8.5 or 13.37% in TMR With increasing levels of DCC, no difference in DMI (28 to 32.2 g/kg BW) and DMD (64.8 to 69%); ADG is not different (153 to 166 g/d); hot and cold carcass were lower for the higher level (46.7 and 45.3% vs 49.6 and 48.5%) but no differences for the component of the carcass Menezes et al., 2016
Brazil Santa Ines male lambs (10 mo, 21.7 kg) 60 g/kg of CaO 12h, 72h sun-dried DCC replaced 0 to 100% SBM in TMR including 60% sugarcane silage, 84 d 0, 7.05, 14.12 or 20.9% in TMR No difference in DMI (859 to 910 g/d) and no differnce in feeding behaviour Oliveira et al., 2016
Brazil Crossbred Santa Ines male lambs (10 mo, 25.6 kg) 10 g/kg CaO, autoclaved at 15 psi 30 min DCC replaced 0 to 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Guinea grass hay, 65 d 0, 10, 20 or 30% in TMR DMI (1.13 to 1.26 kg/d or 38.8 to 41.9 g/kg BW) is not different between DCC levels; but DMD decreases with increasing levels particularly with the highest (from 65.5% to 55.6%), and ADG tends to decrease with the higher level (146 vs 173-189 g/d); no difference in feeding behavior Borja et al., 2017
Brazil Crossbred Morada Nova female and male lambs (7 mo, 18.7 kg) Autoclaving, 15 psi, 123°C, 60 min; 60 g/kg CaCO3; 60 g/kg CaHPO4, 8h, sun-dried; 10 g/kg urea, 7d, sun-dried TMR with 49.3% Bermuda grass hay and 50.7% concentrate including SBM or DCC, 70 days 8.1% in TMR No difference in DMI (38 to 42 g/kg BW); ADG was highest for (149-156 g/d) for autoclaved and CaHPO4-treated DCC and the lowest (115-117 g/d) for UCC and urea-treated DCC Gomes et al., 2017
Brazil Dorper × Santa Ines male lambs (3 mo, 20.1 kg) 10 g/kg of Ca(OH)2 DCC replacing 0 or 67% SBM in TMR including 50% Guinea grass hay, 106 d 8% in TMR Lower level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in muscles Wanderley et al., 2018
India Crossbred adult Mandya male (24.5 kg) Sieved, ground and 4% lime and 3-4d sun-dried TMR including 65% Eleucine straw + 35% conc with SBM or UCC or DCC; 150 d 12.3% COC or 12.3 DCC in place of SBM in TMR No difference in DMI or DMD; no difference with ADG or carcass characteristics Gowda et al., 2009
India Lamb (3-4 mo) Salt DCC compared to groundnut oil cake in concentrate + Rhodes grass hay ad libitum, 168 d 25% in the concentrate No difference of DMI (562 vs 573 g/d), DMD or ADG (61.7 vs 61.5 g/d) between groundnut cake and DCC; true digestible nitrogen was lower for DCC (54.8%) than for groundnut cake (62.1%) Anandharaj et al., 2015
Goats

When adult at maintenance or lactating does or growing kids are fed with diets containing detoxified castor oil cake up to about 20% in the total diet, there are no adverse effects and milk yield or daily weight gain are not different to those obtained with diets based on soybean meal or groundnut cake.

Feeding trials with goats

DCC: detoxified castor oil cake; UCC: untreated castor oil cake; SBM: soybean meal; TMR: total mixed ration; DMI: dry matter intake; DMD: dry matter digestibility; MY: milk yied; ADG: average daily gain

Country Breed Detoxification process Experiment Inclusion rate Results Reference
Brazil Crossbred female (44.8 mo, 42.3 kg) maintenance 60 g/kg CaCO3, 12-18h and dried DCC replacing 100% SBM in diet based on Bermuda grass hay and concentrate 15% in the concentrate No difference in carcass characteristics and blood metabolites Oliveira et al., 2013
Brazil Mixed breed kids (9.5 mo, 21.3 kg)   DCC replacing 100% SBM in diet based on Bermuda grass hay and concentrate 15% in the concentrate No difference in carcass characteristics and blood metabolites Oliveira et al., 2015
Brazil Mixed breed does (28 mo, 33.3 kg) from mating to 60 d pregnancy 60 g/kg CaCO3, 12-18h and dried UCC or DCC replacing 0 or 100% SBM in TMR based on 70% Guinea grass hay and 30% concentrate, 70 d 12.9% UCC or 14.5% DCC in TMR UCC or DCC had no effect on fertility (80 to 88.2%) or prolificacy or early fetus development Silva et al., 2015
Brazil Boer × Anglo Nubian castrated kids (4 mo, 20 kg) 40 g/kg CaO, 12h and 48h sun-dried DCC replacing 0 or 100% SBM in TMR including 50% Bermuda grass hay, 75 d 0, 10, 20 or 30% in TMR DMI and DMD decrease with increasing levels of DCC (0.73 to 0.46 kg/d and 60.6 to 44.7%); consequently, ADG decrease (99 to 37 g/d) and all carcass characteristics also with increasing levels of DCC; no effects on feeding behavior Palmieri et al., 2016; Palmieri et al., 2017
Brazil Saanen and Anglo-nubian (16.2 kg) 90 g/kg of Ca(OH)2 or 60 g/kg NaOH DCC replacing 100% SBM in TMR including Bermuda grass hay (36 to 43%) ~ 240 days 8.3% in TMR DMI is lower for DCC (0.96-1.01 kg) than for SBM (1.12 kg); feeding behavior is linked to the DMI; Araujo et al., 2018
Brazil Alpine (60 days in milk, 44.3 kg) 60 g/kg of Ca(OH)2 12h, 72h sun-dried DCC replacing 0 to 100% SBM in TMR including Bermuda grass hay (50%), 20 d 0, 2.5, 5.0 or 7.5% in TMR No effect on DMI (4.02 to 4.26% BW), DMD (63.9 to 67.5%) or feeding behavior; no effect on MY (1.05 to 1.27 kg/d) or milk composition Lima et al., 2020
India kis (3-4 mo) 40 g/kg CaCO3 or 20 g/kg salt DCC replacing groundnut cake into a concentrate plus finger millet straw ad libitum, 260 d data not available DMI is higher with DCC than with groundnut cake but DMD is lower; no difference in ADG Nagesh et al., 2017

Castor seed hulls

Castor seed hulls can be used safely but have a low nutritive value. They can replace part of a low quality hay, particularly when there is forage scarcity or when hay price is high.

Sheep

In Brazil, castor bean hulls were used to replace (33, 66 and 100%) Bermuda grass hay in a low quality diet based on cactus forage used to feed fattening lambs (de Andrade et al., 2013; Urbano et al., 2013a; Urbano et al., 2013b, Urbano et al., 2012). The control diet provided 400 g DM/d cactus forage, 300 g DM/d Tifton hay, 285 g DM/d concentrate, and 15 g. Castor hulls could replace up to 66% hay without altering DM intake, DM digestibility, daily weight gain and carcass composition (de Andrade et al., 2013; Urbano et al., 2012). When castor hulls replaced 100% of cactus hay, all parameters significantly decreased (de Andrade et al., 2013). Hot and cold carcass weight, carcass composition, slaughter weight, all retail cuts and the longissimus dorsi muscle, decreased significantly with inclusion of castor plant hulls. There was also a linear decrease of the perimeters of the thorax, leg and rump and of the carcass compactness index (Urbano et al., 2013a). Increasing the level of castor hulls in the lamb diets altered the colour of the meat and the cooking losses but it had no effect on organoleptic properties of the meat which was well accepted in sensory evaluation (Urbano et al., 2013b).

Goats

In dairy goats, castor bean hulls could replace hay up to 33% in a complete diet offered to 45 kg dairy goats without any significant changes in milk yield or milk composition except for fat content which increased. With higher substitution levels (67 or 100%) milk yield significantly decreased, fat content still increased and fatty acid profile was modified (Santos et al., 2011).

Pigs 

Information on the use of castor oil cake in pigs is limited. An experiment in Brazil using detoxified castor oil meal replacing 33% to 100% soybean meal caused liver damage and anaemia, and depressed performance. Autoclaving the oil meal did not improve performance, but balancing the diet in lysine and tryptophane was effective. It was concluded that the problems were not due to ricin toxicity but to amino acid deficiency (Benesi, 1979). In a more recent study, six detoxification methods were used on castor oil cake fed to growing pigs (25% dietary level): CaO, autoclaving, CaO + silage, autoclaving + silage and extrusion. The CaO, autoclave and extrusion processes resulted in the highest metabolizable energy, while the CaO and autoclave processes gave the higher digestible protein content. It was suggested that CaO detoxified castor oil cake could be included at 10% in growing pigs diet (Silva et al., 2018).

Poultry 

Although castor bean seeds and castor oil cake have a chemical composition suitable for poultry feeding, they are highly toxic and cannot be used without detoxification (Borchers, 1948; El Badwi et al., 1992a). The use of untreated castor bean products leads to considerable decrease in growth and health status, and often to death (Akande et al., 2013). Intoxication with castor bean was reported in ducks (Jensen et al., 1981).

When antinutritional factors are removed, castor seeds and oil cake become valuable thanks to their high protein content, although their amino acid profile is unbalanced due to low levels of lysine, histidine, and threonine (Diarra et al., 2020). Digestibility of protein is reasonably high (Matos et al., 2011). Energy value depends on dehulling and on residual fat content which is higher in seeds and in expeller oil meals that in defatted meal (Matos et al., 2011; Diarra et al., 2020)

Broilers

Generally, the use of castor bean seeds or oil meals results in a decrease in growth performance even when detoxification processes are used (Akande et al., 2013; Ani et al., 2013; Mustapha et al., 2015; Okoye et al., 1987). Blood parameters and organ weights are also affected. Feed intake is generally less affected, showing that the antinutritional effect is not due to unpalatability of castor beans (Faria Filho et al., 2016).

However, the magnitude of the growth depression depends on the conditions of assays: detoxification process, level of use of castor bean in diets. Toasting was generally found unable to alleviate toxic effects (Okoye et al., 1987; Diarra et al., 2020). Boiling or autoclaving were more efficient, and sometimes allowed up to 10% castor bean oil meal to be used without adverse effects (Ani, 2007; Ani et al., 2009). But in other cases, the same treatments led to severe growth depression (Oyeniran, 2015; Akande et al., 2013; Mustapha et al., 2015). The use of calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide was found be suitable for detoxification , with some success in some cases (Faria Filho et al., 2016). In all cases, levels higher that 10% castor bean meal in diets decreased performance, and the addition of amino acids failed to improve the results (Ani et al., 2013; Ani, 2007).

In conclusion, the use of castor bean seeds or oil meal in broiler diets always presents a risk for animal performance and health. With adequate detoxification processes (such as autoclaving and CaO addition) its use can be possible but it should be tested with care, at low levels (5%) and with proper amino acid formulation.

Layers

The use of raw castor seeds in layers resulted in a considerable reduction in laying performance, even at levels as low as 3.5% (Adedeji et al., 2013). In an attempt to replace totally soybean by castor oil meal (19.1%), all detoxification processes failed to maintain laying performance (Nsa et al., 2013). Toasting was the less efficient method while the combination of soaking and boiling allowed the performance to drop by 5 to 10% only. Detoxication with calcium oxide allowed to maintain laying performance with 5 to 20% castor oil meal in diet, while feed intake decreased at 15 and 20%. Egg weight and characteristics were maintained (Bueno et al., 2014).

Raw castor bean seeds have been tested as a way to induce molting in layers, as it allowed a drop in laying rate, and caused weight loss without feed deprivation (Mucida et al., 2014).

Quails

In growing quails, the used of castor oil meal detoxified with CaO and solid state fermentation depressed growth even at 2.5% in diet, and weight gain was halved with 7.5% castor oil meal in the diet (Annongu et al., 2017).

In laying quails, autoclaved castor oil meal allowed to maintain laying rate and feed intake. Egg mass was slightly lower but feed efficiency was not significantly affected. No major difference was observed on egg quality, except a higher colour intensity of yolk (Ludke et al., 2018).

Rabbits 

Castor seeds

Raw castor seeds are toxic for rabbits as for other animals or humans mainly as a consequence of the presence of ricin. The ingestion of only 4 beans may kill a rabbit within few hours (Mahmoud, 2014), which corresponds to about 80 mg of ricin. An intake of only 25 mg of castor seed per kg LW during 3 weeks induced a significant reduction of live weight with an alteration of blood parameters and histological structure of organs. These toxic effects can be alleviated or suppressed if doxycycline is distributed simultaneously at 25 or better 50 mg/kg LW during the same time (Sarheed et al., 2018). Thought this technique can be suitable to treat accidental intoxication by Ricinus communis seeds, it constitutes in no way a method to use these seeds in rabbit feeding. Different methods have been described to eliminate the toxic compounds present in castor seeds, e.g. thermal treatment (Nsa et al., 2009), but as of October 2020 no experimental use of treated castor seeds in rabbit feeding seems to have been published in the international literature.

Castor oil cake

Detoxified castor oil cake can be used in growing rabbit diets up to 15-17% without depressing rabbit health (Aisjah, 2000; Adedeji et al., 2006, Alves de Oliveira, 2013). However, the growth rate of rabbits fed castor oil cake is lower compared to that obtained with a soybean meal-based diet. This is probably related to the deficiency in lysine and partly in sulphur amino acids deficiency of the seed proteins (Igwe et al., 2012) combined with a relatively low digestibility of this raw material for energy as for proteins (Alves de Oliveira, 2013). When groundnut cake and detoxified castor oil cake, both deficient in lysine and sulphur amino acids, were used to replace soybean meal in rabbit diets, growth rate was similar for the two cakes and a little bit lower than that obtained with the soybean meal diet (Lohith, 2010). These results confirm the previous observations that a simple detoxification of castor bean meal though a treatment with NaCl may provide a wholesome substitute of costly oil cakes in growing rabbit diets without any adverse effect on feed intake, nutritional performance of rabbits (Agarwal, 2001). A trial found that its energy and nutrient digestibilities were relatively low : energy 50.5% (corresponding to a digestible energy of 9.7 MJ/kg DM), protein 65.8%, NDF 28.3%, ADF 29.4%. These low values should be taken into account when formulating rabbit diets including castor oil cake (Alves de Oliveira, 2013). Because of the many existing detoxification methods, which have variable efficiency, and because of the variable level of ricin in castor seeds, determining the residual ricin content in the cake appears necessary before of including this product in significant amount in rabbits diets.

Feeding trials would be necessary before using detoxified castor oil meal in diets for rabbit breeding does, as important reductions of the reproduction capacity of does or males have been described after oral administration of castor seed extracts (containing ricin?) when compared to boiled castor seed extracts (Al-Khafaji, 2019; Salhab et al., 1999; Salhab et al., 1998; Okwuasaba et al., 1991).

Fish 

Castor seeds

Castor seeds have been used as a piscicide for Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and panchax (Aplocheilus panchax). However, once the toxicity has disappeared (after 13-14 days), castor seeds have some nutritive value for the pond and were reported to provide more N to the pond than mahua oilcake (Mondal et al., 2019).

Castor oil cake

Detoxified castor bean meal was used in order to replace increasing levels of fish meal in extruded diets of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) juveniles (9 g). It was possible to replace up to 40% of fish meal when the diet contained 5% castor oil cake without impairing specific growth, feed conversion ratio, feed intake and protein efficiency (Cai et al., 2005).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.6 2.8 80.6 97.3 32  
Crude protein % DM 35.9 5.6 24.6 50.9 36  
Crude fibre % DM 33.6   28.5 37.5 4  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 45.9 7.6 30.1 59.1 32  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 34.8 6.4 18.8 43.4 30  
Lignin % DM 15.6 10.6 2.1 29.7 25  
Ether extract % DM 2.9 1.5 0.5 5.5 27  
Ash % DM 12 4 4.3 19.7 27  
Insoluble ash % DM 1       1  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 19.2 2.5 17.7 23.9 5 *
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine g/16g N 4.1   4 4.2 3  
Arginine g/16g N 10.1   10 10.3 3  
Aspartic acid g/16g N 8.7   8.4 8.9 3  
Cystine g/16g N 1.5   0.5 2.1 3  
Glutamic acid g/16g N 17.9   17.5 18.2 3  
Glycine g/16g N 4.2   4.1 4.3 3  
Histidine g/16g N 2   1.9 2.1 3  
Isoleucine g/16g N 4.2   4.1 4.3 3  
Leucine g/16g N 6.1   5.9 6.4 3  
Lysine g/16g N 2.8   2 3.5 3  
Methionine g/16g N 1.6   1.6 1.6 3  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 3.2         *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 3.9   3.8 4.1 3  
Proline g/16g N 3.5   3.4 3.7 3  
Serine g/16g N 4.9   4.5 5.2 3  
Threonine g/16g N 3.2   3.1 3.3 3  
Tryptophan g/16g N 1.1   1.1 1.1 3  
Valine g/16g N 5.1   5 5.1 3  
               
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 1.4   0.9 1.9 4  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 1.3   1 1.4 4  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 4.2   2.9 4.8 4  
Ricinoleic acid C18:1 OH % fatty acids 81.8   78.8 89 4  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 5.3   4.5 5.7 4  
Linolenic acid C18:3 % fatty acids 0.5   0.4 0.6 4  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 18.5 6.8 3.5 34.2 13  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.7 2.2 4.3 9.6 5  
Potassium g/kg DM 7.9   5.5 9.7 3  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.58   0.45 0.7 3  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.8   3.4 4.4 4  
Sulfur g/kg DM 2.8       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 9       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 26   9 43 2  
Copper mg/kg DM 9   0.3 18 2  
Iron mg/kg DM 164       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 57.5         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.1         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.3         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 5.5         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 45.6         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 8         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 7.8         *
               
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 67.2         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 65.5         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.4         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 76.6         *
               
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 8.6         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 7.3         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 44.8       1 *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 73.2       1 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Alves de Oliveira, 2013; Anastasi et al., 2014; Borja et al., 2017; Bose et al., 1988; Candido et al., 2008; Cobianchi et al., 2012; Diniz et al., 2010; Filho et al., 2010; Furtado et al., 2015; Gionbelli et al., 2014; Gomes et al., 2017; Gowda et al., 2009; Lima et al., 2020; Menezes et al., 2016; Nicory et al., 2015; Oliveira et al., 2010; Oliveira et al., 2013; Oliveira et al., 2016; Palmieri et al., 2017; Robb et al., 1974; Silva et al., 2015

Last updated on 13/10/2020 16:45:59

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 90.8   87.1 93.3 4  
Crude protein % DM 12.7 9.3 5.1 28.8 5  
Crude fibre % DM 31.3       1  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 64.6   42.5 84.3 3  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 41   29.3 47.1 3  
Lignin % DM 7.8   6.6 9 3  
Ether extract % DM 6.8   0.5 19.9 4  
Ash % DM 10.9   5.8 21.1 4  
Insoluble ash % DM 1       1  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 0          
Starch (enzymatic) % DM 0          
Total sugars % DM 0          
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.8         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 6.1   5.4 6.7 2  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.6   2.6 6.5 2  
Potassium g/kg DM 45       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.8       1  
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 42.1         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.9         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 7.4         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 4.4         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 29.9         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 4.5         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 4.2         *
               
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 51.9         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 49         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 7.4         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 57.7         *
               
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 7.3         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 6.9         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 38.8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 57.1         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Bris et al., 1970; Candido et al., 2008; de Andrade et al., 2013; Lima et al., 2011

Last updated on 13/10/2020 17:10:35

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.8 1.7 87.8 92.9 7  
Crude protein % DM 33.1 3 28.5 37.6 7  
Crude fibre % DM 24.3       1  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 45.9 8.4 33.8 56.5 6  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 34.8 6.7 24.2 40.3 6  
Lignin % DM 15.6   3.4 29.3 3  
Ether extract % DM 12.9 6.6 5.6 21.1 7  
Ash % DM 9.5 4.6 5.3 16.2 7  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 21.4   20.8 23 3 *
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine g/16g N 4.1   4 4.2 3  
Arginine g/16g N 10.1   10 10.3 3  
Aspartic acid g/16g N 8.7   8.4 8.9 3  
Cystine g/16g N 1.5   0.5 2.1 3  
Glutamic acid g/16g N 17.9   17.5 18.2 3  
Glycine g/16g N 4.2   4.1 4.3 3  
Histidine g/16g N 2   1.9 2.1 3  
Isoleucine g/16g N 4.2   4.1 4.3 3  
Leucine g/16g N 6.1   5.9 6.4 3  
Lysine g/16g N 2.8   2 3.5 3  
Methionine g/16g N 1.6   1.6 1.6 3  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 3.2   2.1 3.8 3 *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 3.9   3.8 4.1 3  
Proline g/16g N 3.5   3.4 3.7 3  
Serine g/16g N 4.9   4.5 5.2 3  
Threonine g/16g N 3.2   3.1 3.3 3  
Tryptophan g/16g N 1.1   1.1 1.1 3  
Valine g/16g N 5.1   5 5.1 3  
               
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 1.4   0.9 1.9 4  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 1.3   1 1.4 4  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 4.2   2.9 4.8 4  
Ricinoleic acid C18:1 OH % fatty acids 81.8   78.8 89 4  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 5.3   4.5 5.7 4  
Linolenic acid C18:3 % fatty acids 0.5   0.4 0.6 4  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 55.2       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 8.1       1  
Potassium g/kg DM 7.9          
Sodium g/kg DM 0.78       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.8          
               
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 60.1         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.8         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 12         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 61.1         *
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 10.9         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 10.4         *
               
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 66.1         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 66.2         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 10.8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 75.6         *
               
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 10.9         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 9.8         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 51         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 64.5         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Alves et al., 2016; Candido et al., 2008; Filho et al., 2010; Pompeu et al., 2012; Silva et al., 2018

Last updated on 29/10/2020 18:38:34

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 95 0.3 94.8 95.3 6  
Crude protein % DM 18.7 1.3 17.5 20.4 6  
Crude fibre % DM 8.6 0.6 7.8 9.3 5  
Ether extract % DM 53.6 2.6 50.3 55.8 6  
Ash % DM 2.7 0.3 2.4 2.9 6  
Insoluble ash % DM 0.04   0.01 0.07 3  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 30.5         *
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine g/16g N 5.3       1  
Arginine g/16g N 7.3       1  
Aspartic acid g/16g N 15.2       1  
Cystine g/16g N 1.8       1  
Glutamic acid g/16g N 10.2       1  
Glycine g/16g N 1.1       1  
Histidine g/16g N 1.7       1  
Isoleucine g/16g N 3.7       1  
Leucine g/16g N 6.5       1  
Lysine g/16g N 4.4       1  
Methionine g/16g N 2.8       1  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 4.5         *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 5.2       1  
Phenylalanine+tyrosine g/16g N 7.8         *
Proline g/16g N 3       1  
Serine g/16g N 3.2       1  
Threonine g/16g N 3.7       1  
Tyrosine g/16g N 2.6       1  
Valine g/16g N 4.9       1  
               
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 1.4   0.9 1.9 4  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 1.3   1 1.4 4  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 4.2   2.9 4.8 4  
Ricinoleic acid C18:1 OH % fatty acids 81.8   78.8 89 4  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 5.3   4.5 5.7 4  
Linolenic acid C18:3 % fatty acids 0.5   0.4 0.6 4  
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 2.5 0.3 2.2 2.8 6  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4 0.8 3 4.8 6  
Potassium g/kg DM 4.4 0.4 3.9 4.6 6  
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.6 0.4 2.1 2.9 6  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Anastasi et al., 2014; CIRAD, 1991; Igwe et al., 2012; Pozy et al., 1996

Last updated on 29/10/2020 18:41:38

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2020. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) seeds, oil meal and by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/28 Last updated on October 29, 2020, 18:42

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