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Foxtail amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus)


Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Foxtail amaranth, Inca-wheat, Love-lies-bleeding, purple amaranth, cat-tail, red-hot-cattail, tassel-flower, tumbleweed, velvet flower, foxtail [English], amarante caudée, amarante queue-de-renard, discipline des religieux, queue de renard [French]; Gartenfuchsschwanz, Inkaweizen [German]; moncos-de-Peru [Portuguese]; kiwicha, coimi, cuipa [Quechua (Peru)]; achita, bledo francés, quilete, trigo del Inca [Spanish]; rävsvans [Swedish]; bayam ekor kucing [Indonesian]; bayam selaseh [Malaysian]; phakkhom-baidaeng [Thai]; rau dền duôi [Vietnamese].


The foxtail amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus L.) is one of the most popular species of domesticated amaranths. It has been cultivated for a long time as a multipurpose pseudocereal of high nutritive value, as a vegetable and as an ornamental plant (eFloras, 2021). It belongs to the group of grain amaranths, along with Amaranthus cruentus and Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Brenner et al., 2000). The plant residue after grain harvest may be fed to livestock or used for thatching.


Amaranthus caudatus is an annual erect herb 0.5-1.5 (-2.5) m in height, commonly reddish or purplish in colour. The root system consists in a short enlarged taproot and secondary roots that explores deeper soil layers (NRC, 1989). The stem is rather stout, moderately branched, glabrous or thinly furnished with rather long hairs. The leaves are simple and entire, spirally arranged, borne on petiole up to 8 cm long shorter than the blade. The leafblade is broadly ovate to rhomboid-ovate or ovate-elliptical, 2.5-15 (-20) cm long × 1–8 cm broad, glabrous or sparsely hairy below, pinnately veined. The inflorescence is large (0.9 to 1.5 m), robust, and complex, consisting of numerous agglomerated cymes arranged in axillary and terminal spikes, the terminal one drooping or nodding. The inflorescence is showy, very versatile in colour, ranging from red, purple to white and less often green, silvery green or yellow. It may look like a red cat's tail, hence one of its vernacular name: "cat's tail" or "red-hot-cattail". The flowers are unisexual, sessile: the male flowers are mostly at the apex of the spike. The fruits are ovoid-globose, one-seeded capsules, about 1.5-2.5 mm long, almost smooth or slightly furrowed, abruptly narrowed to a short thick beak. The seeds are nearly globose, 1-1.5 mm long, very light, smooth and shining, very variable in colour, from ivory, yellowish white to reddish brown or dark brown (eFloras, 2021; Agong, 2006; NRC, 1989). The 1000-seed weight is 0.5-1.1 g (Agong, 2006)


Amaranthus caudatus is mainly used as a source of food in India and South America (Agong, 2006). Known as kiwicha in Peru, its seeds are reported to be flavourful and highly nutritious and, unlike quinoa, do not contain saponins. The seeds are used to feed infants and pregnant women, disabled and elderly people (NRC, 1989). They can be used in several recipes. They produce a crunchy nutty "popcorn" when heated, they can be used as a snack, as a cold cereal with milk and honey, in sweets, or as a “breading” on chicken or fish. The grain can be ground into flour, rolled into flakes, "puffed", or boiled for porridge. The flour can be blended with cereal flours to improve their nutritive value (higher protein, better amino acid balance and higher vitamin content). It enters in bakery specialties. In Ethiopia, foxtail amaranth seeds are considered a famine food in times of scarcity, and combined with teff to make injera flatbread in times of abundance (Agong, 2006).

The plant contains pigments that can be used for food colouring. Young leaves and stems of foxtail amaranth can be boiled as greens, like spinach (NRC, 1989). Although they are not reported in statistics, the various amaranths may actually be the most widely grown vegetable crop in the humid tropics (NRC, 1989). After grain harvest, the stover can be fed to livestock or used for thatching. Feed uses of the stover been reported in South America and in other countries such as China (NRC, 1989; Brenner et al., 2000). All parts of foxtail amaranth have ethnomedicinal applications and have been reviewed for their potential benefits (anti-diabetic, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-atherogenic, regulator of arterial pressure, cardioprotective) in human health (Martinez-Lopez et al., 2020; Agong, 2006).


Amaranthus caudatus is thought to have originated in South America from wild varieties of the Amaranthus hybridus aggregate. It is the most important Andean species of the genus Amaranthus. Foxtail amaranth is believed to have been fully domesticated in South America for a long time. It has been found in Andean tombs more than 4,000 years old (Coons, 1982). The seeds were used by the Incas, Aztecs, and other pre-Columbian peoples, as a staple grain. It was once almost as widely dispersed throughout the Americas as maize. It was replaced by the cereals brought by colonizers and it is only in the 1970s that it started to be grown again in the Andes and other parts of the world (NRC, 1989). It was introduced to Europe as an ornamental in the 17th century and in Asia by 18th century. In the mid 20th century, amaranth production gained renewed interest among organic producers in the US as it was referred to as a healthy and highly nutritious plant (Brenner et al., 2000). Numerous infraspecific entities that are mostly of horticultural importance have been described (eFloras, 2021).

Foxtail amaranth can grow on a wide range of conditions. It is tolerant of drought and heat. As a C4 carbon-fixing plant, it is particularly efficient at high temperature, in bright sunlight, and under dry conditions. In the Andean region, it does well where conventional grain crops fail. It is a pionneering plant in environments where it has been newly introduced (NRC, 1989). It can become a weed in crops or in degraded land around the crops but is seldom referred to as an invasive or noxious weed (eFloras, 2021). Foxtail amaranth does well under very variable soil nutrients levels. In Peru, foxtail amaranth can be grown with supplemental irrigation and manure fertilizer (Agong, 2006).

There is no worldwide data on amaranth production (D'Amico et al., 2017). The main amaranth-producing countries have been reported to be the tropical regions of South America, the Caribbean, Africa (especially for leaves of the amaranth plant), Central, and Asia (especially India, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka) (Agong, 2006). In the highlands of Nepal, amaranths are most common at elevations between 2000 and 3000 metres above sea level (Khadka, 1987). Amaranths are also grown to a minor extent in the warmer regions of North America. In Europe, the production is quite low, only about 1000 ha in Slovakia, Hungary, and Italy. In the Mediterranean region, amaranth is grown as a leafy vegetable (D'Amico et al., 2017). There was much greater cultivation in Russia, amounting to about 100,000 ha (Moudry et al., 1999). In Africa, amaranth is mainly grown for its leaves as vegetable, in Tanzania, Benin, Togo, Sierra Leone, DR Congo and Kenya (Mwambo et al., 2015). In Tanzania, amaranth area represents 5.3% of the area dedicated to vegetables, and amaranth ranked first in the top 5 vegetables grown in North-East Tanzania (NBS, 2012; Keller, 2004).

Forage management 

Crop management

Amaranthus caudatus is propagated by seed as a sole cropping or in intercropping systems (with maize, millet, bean or cassava). In Peru the sowing rate ranges from 8-18 kg/ha while, in Kenya, it is only 1-2 kg/ha. Prior chemical (sulfuric acid) or physical (sandpaper) scarification of seeds is recommended. In Peru, improved cultivars sown at 400,000–500,000 plants/ha gave the highest yields. Because of their small size, the seeds should not be sown deeper than 1-1.5 cm unless elevated temperature and dry conditions require deeper (down to 5 cm) sowing. The depth of sowing should be a trade-off between heat and drought resistance and emergence ability. The seedlings shoud be weeded at least once during their first month of growth. After establishment, foxtail amaranth competes well with weeds. Hilling the plants provide weed control and reduces lodging (Agong, 2006).

Seed harvest and seed yield

The harvest should occur when the plant is still green to prevent grain shattering (Agong, 2006). Seed yields of grain amaranths (Amaranthus spp.) are extremely variable, ranging from 50 to 7200 kg/ha (Alemayehu et al., 2015). The highest yields were reported in South and Central America (4600 - 7200 kg/ha), and the lowest in Africa (50 - 2500 kg/ha)(Alemayehu et al., 2015). In North-western India, yields of foxtail amaranth are lower than those of Amaranthus hypochondriacus. Irrigation was reported to improve the grain yield of foxtail amaranth by 122% (from 900 to 2000 kg/ha) (Alemayehu et al., 2015).

Forage harvest and forage yield

After the grain is threshed, the crop residue (straw, stover) can be used as a source of fodder for cattle. Research in Peru demonstrated that it has much better nutritional value than the residues of other Andean crops. Andean farmers traditionally maintain their livestock on foxtail amaranth stover during the dry season, when forage is limited.

Amaranthus caudatus has potential as a forage crop. It can rapidly produce a large amount of biomass with a high protein content, in tropical areas where high-protein forages yield poorly (NRC, 1989). In Central Yakutia (Russia), annual green biomass yield was 28.1 t/ha, and DM yield was 6.44 t/ha (Maksimova, 2020).

Environmental impact 

Climate change-friendly species

Amaranths are highly valuable in challenging growing conditions, especially in respect of the consequences of climate change (Alemayehu et al., 2015).

Soil cover and soil remediation

In China, amaranths make valuable vegetative cover in mountainous regions with low soil fertility (Brenner et al., 2000). Foxtail amaranth could be cultivated and used as a hyperaccumulator in the uptake of cadmium from cadmium-contaminated soils (Cay, 2016).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 


Despite the reported use of Amaranthus caudatus stover as forage in countries that use the grain for food, there is limited data on its composition. One paper from Turkey indicates protein values ranging from 4 to 11% DM, NDF from 41 to 56% DM and ADF from 30 to 37% DM. The nutritive value is better when the plants are grown under irrigation (Keskin et al., 2020).


There are large discrepancies reported in the composition of Amaranthus caudatus foliage, that may be explained by the type of material samples (leaf or whole plant), the stage of maturity, and the geographical origin. In Italy, the protein content of Amaranthus caudatus herbage ranged from 24% DM (early vegetative), decreased sharply during the vegetative state (19-13% DM) and were down to 7% (early flowering), before rising again at 11% (grain fill) (Peiretti et al., 2018). In South Africa, values at pre-flowering were very high (about 30% DM), decreased slightly at flowering and sharply after that (14-18% DM) (Jimoh et al., 2020). In South Korea, older plants (120 days after sowing) contained 11-12% DM of protein (Nogoy et al., 2021). Fibre values are also quite variable, witn NDF ranging from 32 to 62% DM.


Amaranth seeds are used for human food and are considered to be of good nutritional value compared to cereal grains (Bressani et al., 1987). This is also true of the foxtail amaranth grain: protein content is high (14-18% DM) with a high lysine (5.8% of the protein). It is rich in starch (52-66% DM) with some lipids (10% DM) with moderate amounts of fibre though high values for ADF and lignin (> 10% DM) have been reported in some samples.

Potential constraints 

Anti-nutritional factors

The seeds and leafy parts of amaranth species contains anti-nutritional factors like phenolics, saponins, tannins, phytic acid, oxalates, protease inhibitors, nitrates, polyphenols and phytohemagglutinins (Lehman, 1992). Amaranths are prone to accumulate nitrate in their green tissues and not in the seeds, notably when the plants have suffered from drought or frost. Wild amaranths should not be grown on N rich soils. Oxalates and nitrates are of more concern when amaranth grain is used in foraging application, and when the diet is not balanced with other feeds (Alegbejo, 2013; O'Brien et al., 1983). Processing (moist heat) could reduce these adverse effects (Alegbejo, 2013).


In Australia, chicken fed on raw amaranth grain (Amaranthus spp.) had convulsion and died. Liver damage was reported to have occured but the toxic factor remained unidentified (Cheeke et al., 1980 cited by Alegbejo, 2013). Foxtail amaranth grain was found to be toxic to pigs (see Pig section) (Takken et al., 1985).


Foxtail amaranth forage seems to be a good feed for ruminants, though information is scarce.


In a comparison of the stover of several amaranth species (Amaranthus caudatus, Amaranthus paniculatus x Amaranthus nutans and Amaranthus hybridus) in Turkey, stover from foxtail amaranth had a calculated ME comprised between 9.7 and 10.5 MJ/kg DM, and it was significantly higher than that of the other species. Calculated ME was also higher for plants grown in irrigated land (Keskin et al., 2020). 


In South Korea, amaranth forage was found to a promising forage for ruminants due its good nutrient composition, and its DM and protein degradability (about 30-32%), and its favourable fermentation characteristics (Nogoy et al., 2021).



Foxtail amaranth grain was found to be deleterious to pigs. In a trial in Australia, the grain offered to pigs first resulted in feed refusal and progressive acceptance as the animals became used to the feed, but the acceptance took more time when the level of grain was high in the diet. It caused sudden death within one month in 10 pigs after 7 weeks. Nine of of dead had mild to severa myocardial degerneration. Heat treatment (steam press pelleting) could not alleviate the problem (Takken et al., 1985). 



Foxtail amaranth grain has a protein content and amino acid profile suitable for poultry (Connor et al., 1980; Peiretti et al., 2018). However the toxins present in the raw seeds limits the direct use of amaranth. Other grain amaranth species can be used for broilers, such as Amaranthus cruentus (Tillman et al., 1988) and Amaranthus hypochondriacus (Ravindran et al., 1996), and for layers (Popiela et al., 2013).

In broilers, raw foxtail amaranth led to depressed growth. In an experiment with finisher female broilers, the inclusion of 5 to 10% raw amaranth seeds decreased weight gain by 50% (Longato et al., 2017). In starter chickens, the total replacement of cereals by 70% foxtail amaranth seeds dramatically decreased growth, but heat processed seeds allowed a performance similar to control (Connor et al., 1980). Raw foxtail amaranth in broilers diet decreased cholesterol and triglycerides levels but did not change meat fatty acid profiles nor meat quality (Longato et al., 2017).



Many studies have been conducted on the use of Amaranthus spp. forages in animal feeding (Peiretti, 2018; Manyelo et al., 2020). However, no information seems available in the international literature on the specific use of foxtail amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) forage in rabbit feeding (as of February 2021).

The residual pulp of foxtail amaranth obtained after leaf fractionation can replace maize in rabbit feeding at 10% even 20% without significant alteration of feed intake or growth rate (Omole et al., 1979). In addition, ethanol extract of foxtail amaranth leaves administered to cholesterol-fed rabbits (150 mg /kg body weight daily during 60 days) decreased the most important risk factors (the serum lipoproteins, apoB and Ox-LDL) of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory factors prevented atherosclerosis and was more effective than lovastatin (Kabiri et al., 2010). If foxtail amaranth were to be used as safe forage in rabbit feeding, the vegetative stage of the plant should be taken into account since for example the protein content of dry matter can vary from 24% (early vegetative) down to 7% (early flowering) within 36 days (Peiretti et al., 2018).


Like for the forage, information on the use of Amaranthus caudatus grain in rabbit feeding seems very scarce in the international literature. For hyperchlesterolemic rabbits, the introduction of extruded Amaranthus caudatus grain during 21 days, reduces LDL and cholesterol levels in the serum, without modification of the growth rate (Plate et al., 2002). Raw or extruded grains are very rich in sulphur amino acids (twice the requirement of the rabbit), are relatively rich in lysine (1.3 times the requirement), unlike true cereals (60 to 75% of requirement) but deficient in threonine (about 90% of requirement) (Chavez-Jauregui et al., 2000).


Rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss)

In an experiment aiming at assessing the apparent digestibility coefficients of Peruvian feedstuffs (jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas, kañiwa Chenopodium pallidicaule, foxtail amaranth grain (kiwicha), quinoa grain, common beans, and sacha inchi Plukenetia volubilis), juvenile rainbow trouts could be fed on commercial diets including 30% of these feedstuffs during 25 days. Digestibilities of DM, OM, CP were respectively 58.9%, 63.1%; 89.1% for foxtail amaranth grain and digestible energy was 11.5 MJ/kg DM. Foxtail amaranth meal ranked 4th among the 6 feedstuffs assessed and was thus not considered as reliable potential feed for juvenile rainbow trout (Ortiz-Chura et al., 2018)


In an attempt to replace fish meal in Litopenaeus vannamei diets, Amaranthus caudatus seed meal and quinoa seed meal were included at increasing levels (15; 25; 35; and  45% fish meal replacement). The inclusion of amaranth grain resulted in lower growth rates in shrimps while it had better digestibility of DM and CP at 15% inclusion. Growth rates of shrimps fed on quinoa were always better than those with amaranth meal and could replace up to 45% fish meal while amaranth meal could only replace 15% fish meal with impaired growth performance (Molina-Poveda et al., 2015).


Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 89.1 1.1 87.7 91 10  
Crude protein % DM 15.4 1.1 14 17.6 21  
Crude fibre % DM 6.9   4.7 8.2 4  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 9.8   7.1 14.8 3  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 8 3.6 5.5 14.2 5  
Lignin % DM 4.9 3.5 2.9 11.9 6  
Ether extract % DM 9.7 2.3 5.7 14.2 17  
Ash % DM 3 0.5 2.4 4.3 17  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 63.3         *
Starch (enzymatic) % DM 61.6 5.2 51.5 65.8 6  
Total sugars % DM 3 0.5 2.6 3.8 5  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 20.1         *
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine g/16g N 3.7 0.2 3.5 4 6  
Arginine g/16g N 9 0.3 8.7 9.3 6  
Aspartic acid g/16g N 7.9 0.6 7.3 9 6  
Cystine g/16g N 2.3 0.6 2 3.5 6  
Glutamic acid g/16g N 16.2 0.5 15.8 17.3 6  
Glycine g/16g N 7.2 0.6 6.7 8.1 6  
Histidine g/16g N 2.6 0.2 2.4 2.9 6  
Isoleucine g/16g N 3.6 0.2 3.4 4 6  
Leucine g/16g N 5.4 0.3 5.2 5.9 6  
Lysine g/16g N 5.8 0.5 5.2 6.5 9  
Methionine g/16g N 2.4 0.5 2.2 3.4 6  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 4.8         *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 3.9 0.4 3.7 4.6 6  
Phenylalanine+tyrosine g/16g N 7.2         *
Proline g/16g N 4 0.09 3.9 4.2 6  
Serine g/16g N 6.1 0.5 5.8 7.1 6  
Threonine g/16g N 3.3 0.1 3.2 3.6 6  
Tryptophan g/16g N 1.4 0.1 1.3 1.6 8  
Tyrosine g/16g N 3.3 0.3 2.8 3.5 6  
Valine g/16g N 4.3 0.3 4.1 4.9 6  
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Myristic acid C14:0 % fatty acids 0   0 0 3  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 19.2   17.2 20.9 4  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 2.8   1.9 4.1 4  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 26.5   23.7 28.7 4  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 48.4   46.8 51.6 4  
Linolenic acid C18:3 % fatty acids 0.9       1  
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 1.8 0.8 0.9 3.4 12  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6 1 4.6 7.4 8  
Potassium g/kg DM 5.9   5.4 6.5 4  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.23   0.2 0.27 4  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.2 0.5 2.8 4.5 8  
Manganese mg/kg DM 30   24 38 4  
Zinc mg/kg DM 33 8 16 43 12  
Copper mg/kg DM 8 2 6 10 8  
Iron mg/kg DM 150 72 71 317 12  
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 82.7         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.6         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 16.2         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.9         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 74.4         *
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 16.9         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 16.5         *
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 81.4         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 80         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 13.3         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 69.6         *
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 15.3         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 14.7         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 75.8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 71.7         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Alvarez-Jubete et al., 2009; Amare et al., 2016; Bressani et al., 1987; Chavez-Jauregui et al., 2000; Keskin et al., 2020; Ortiz-Chura et al., 2018; Pedersen et al., 1987; Pedersen et al., 1987; Peralta et al., 2013; Repo-Carrasco-Valencia et al., 2009

Last updated on 26/07/2021 13:53:22

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 14 2.4 11.5 17.9 7  
Crude protein % DM 20.7 8 7.3 31.5 26  
Crude fibre % DM 27.7         *
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 43.5 7.5 32.4 61.7 24  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 32.2 7.2 22.8 44.4 9  
Lignin % DM 9.1 1.1 7.5 10.9 7  
Ether extract % DM 1.9 0.9 0.6 5.4 26  
Ash % DM 22.9 6 10.3 29.8 26  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 16 1.2 15.5 19.5 8 *
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Arginine g/16g N 4.8       1  
Cystine g/16g N 1       1  
Histidine g/16g N 2.5       1  
Isoleucine g/16g N 4.7       1  
Leucine g/16g N 9.6       1  
Lysine g/16g N 4.8       1  
Methionine g/16g N 1.1       1  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 2.1         *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 5.1       1  
Phenylalanine+tyrosine g/16g N 8.2         *
Threonine g/16g N 3.5       1  
Tryptophan g/16g N 0.9       1  
Tyrosine g/16g N 3.1       1  
Valine g/16g N 5.3       1  
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 11.9 2.9 8 15.2 7  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 3.6 1 2.4 5.2 7  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 5.7 3.5 3.1 13.3 7  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 16.9 5.3 11.1 27.1 7  
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 13.6 5.3 2.3 18 18  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 4.2 1.1 1 6.1 18  
Potassium g/kg DM 77.4 20.9 2.6 94.3 16  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.8 0.29 0.11 1.3 16  
Magnesium g/kg DM 6.7 2.3 2.2 13.4 18  
Manganese mg/kg DM 30 11 22 71 17  
Zinc mg/kg DM 59 106 0 405 17  
Copper mg/kg DM 6 2 4 12 17  
Iron mg/kg DM 516 230 65 937 17  
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 71.8         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 68.6         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 8.5         *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 30   26 34 2 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 36   32 40 2 *
a (N) % 15   11 18 2  
b (N) % 107   106 108 2  
c (N) h-1 0.01   0.01 0.01 2  
Dry matter degradability (effective, k=6%) % 32   32 33 2 *
Dry matter degradability (effective, k=4%) % 36   35 36 2 *
a (DM) % 19   14 23 2  
b (DM) % 32   24 40 2  
c (DM) h-1 0.045   0.04 0.05 2  
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 5.9         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 4.9         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 37         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 100         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Chairatanayuth, P.; Ezeala, 1985; Jimoh et al., 2020; Nogoy et al., 2021; Oliveira et al., 1975; Peiretti et al., 2018

Last updated on 26/07/2021 14:12:57

Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Giger-Reverdin S., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2021. Foxtail amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus). Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/573 Last updated on September 24, 2021, 16:38