Animal feed resources information system

Did you find the information you were looking for? Is it valuable to you? Feedipedia is encountering funding shortage. We need your help to keep providing reference-based feeding recommendations for your animals.
Would you consider donating? If yes, please click on the button Donate.

Any amount is the welcome. Even one cent is helpful to us!

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus)


Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Jack, jackfruit, jak [English], bo luo mi, jacquier [French], jackfruchtbaum [German], nangka, nongko [Indonesian], kathal, jaqueira, jaqueiro [Portuguese], árbol del pan, arbol de yaca, jaca, jacueiro, nanca, nanjea, panapén, pan de fruta, buen pan, rima, jaca [Spanish]; mfenesi,mfenesi mfuu [Swahili]; جاكية[Arabic]; نان صحرایی [Farsi]; פרי-הג'ק [Hebrew]; ફણસ [Gujarati]; कटहल [Hindi]; Джекфрут [Russian]; 波羅蜜 [Chinese]; パラミツ [Japanese]; 잭프루트 [Korean]; Mít [Vietnamese]


Artocarpus integrifolius L.f.


The jackfruit tree (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is a tropical to subtropical, multipurpose tree mainly grown for its edible, energy- and protein-rich fruits. Its leaves, culled fruits, and fruit peelings are valuable for livestock feeding. It is a major fruit tree in some Asian countries and it is widely spread around the world.


Artocarpus heterophyllus is an evergreen tree reaching 8-25 m high. It is deeply taprooted. It has a dense, dome shaped, rarely pyramidal crown whose diameter can be up to 6 m within 5 years. The trunk is straight, rarely buttressed, with a circumference of 50-100 cm. The bark is rough, somewhat scaly, greyish-brown in colour, The stems are straight, forming a 30° angle with the trunk. Branches, twigs and foliage are glabrous; when injured they exudate an abundant gummy latex. The leaves are alternate, simple, pinnately veined, coriaceous, glossy, 4-25 cm long x 2-12 cm, dark green on the upper side and pale green beneath. The leaf shape is very versatile and depends on the situation on the tree and on the stage of maturity. The jackfruit tree is monoecious: inflorescences are solitary, axillary borne on special lateral, short, stout flowering shoots emerging from older branches and main trunk, or even from the base of the trunk in very old trees. Male flowers are barrel-shaped or ellipsoid, pedicellated, 3-8 cm long x 1-3 cm in diameter; female flowers are solitary or paired, oblong or cylindrical with rough, light to dark green skin, 5-15 cm long x 3-4.5 cm across and surrounded by a 5-8 cm long spathaceous bract (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987).

The fruit is large, pear-shaped, and cauliflorus, 20-100 cm long x 15-50 cm broad. It may weigh 4.5 kg, up to 25 (-50) kg. It grows along the trunk. It is made of 500 indehiscent fleshy, banana-flavoured achenes, each containing one waxy, oval-oblong seed. The fruit is dark green in colour when young and becomes yellow to brownish at maturity. It is covered with a thick rubbery rind and hard pyramidal spines. At full maturity, the unopened jackfruit emits a strong disagreeable odor, resembling that of decayed onions, while the pulp of the opened fruit smells of pineapple and banana (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987).


The jackfruit is a staple fruit in Asia, where it is an important source of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins. When the fruit is immature, the pulp can be used in several dishes like curries, pickles, or cooked as a vegetable. Its meat-like taste and texture is reminiscent of chicken and makes it a relished substitute of meat for vegetarians and vegans (Growables, 2020). At maturity, the pulp is eaten fresh or made into delicacies, chutney, jam, jelly and paste. It can be candied, made into ice-cream and juices/drinks. Young leaves and immature male flower clusters may be prepared as vegetables. The seeds have good nutritive value (they contain valuable amount of vitamine A, sulphur, calcium and phosphorus) and can be eaten as snacks (like peanuts), boiled (like chestnuts) or ground and blended with wheat flour to produce baking flour. Rotten male flowers can be used in salads or pickles (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987).

Several parts of the jackfruit tree are used as fodder for farm animals. In India, the leaves are lopped for ruminant fodder, while the overripe, immature or fallen fruits are fed to pigs and cattle. Jackfruit peelings may be fed to livestock (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987). Elephants eat the bark, leaves and fruits (Orwa et al., 2009).

The trunk provides a valuable and durable timber that is resistant to termites, and to fungal and bacterial decay and used for furniture, construction and musical instruments. It is reported to be superior to teak in quality. The roots are used in carving and framing. The latex contains a resin that can be used in varnishes. The latex is traditionally used as a glue to mend broken chinaware and other crafted works. The latex may be used as a substitute of rubber. The bark yields a dye that, after boiling with alum, is transformed into a deep yellow dye. This dye is used for silk and cotton robe of Buddhist priests (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987).

All parts of jackfruit tree (bark, roots, leaves, and fruits) are attributed with diverse medicinal properties and are used in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine to treat wide a range of ailments (Baliga et al., 2011). Jackfruit trees are beautiful shade trees that are planted as ornamentals in parks, gardens or along roadsides. They make useful shade trees in coffee plantations or nurse trees in pepper plantations. They can be used in agroforestry systems including annual cash crops such as banana, sweet corn and groundnut (Orwa et al., 2009).


Artocarpus heterophyllus most probably originated in the Western Ghats in India. It is also native to Malaysia and Bengladesh where it is the national fruit. The jackfruit has been cultivated for centuries and was introduced and became naturalized in many parts of the tropics, particularly in the South-Eastern Asian region. Artocarpus heterophyllus is grown at low elevations throughout Asia and South-East Asia (India, Burma, Ceylon, southern China, Malaya, and the East Indies). In South India, the jackfruit is a popular food ranking next to the mango and banana in total annual production. In the Philippines, it is both cultivated and naturalized. In Africa, it is planted in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania (Zanzibar). It was introduced to Brazil and Surinam. It is still rare in Hawaii and other Pacific islands (though it was introduced to Queensland, Australia), as it is in most of tropical America and the West Indies (Morton, 1987).

Jackfruit is mainly found from sea level up to 1600 m altitude in tropical, near tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres (30°N to 30° S) where annual rainfall is evenly distributed and ranges between 1000 and 2400 mm, and where average temperature is 16-22°C. While it is able to bear fruit between 30° N and 30° S, better crops are obtained around 25° N or S. The jackfruit tree does better in well-drained, deep, alluvial, sandy-loam or clay loam soils of medium fertility with a pH of 5-7.5. However, it also grows in the poorest soils, including gravelly or lateritic soils, shallow limestone, shallow light soils, and sandy or stony soils. It has moderate tolerance to salinity. Jackfruit tree does not tolerate drought or flooding (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987).

The main jackfruit producers are India (1.43 million t), Bengladesh (920 000 t), Thailand (392 000 t) Indonesia (340 000 t), and Nepal (19 000 t) (Sawe, 2017).

Forage management 

Artocarpus heterophyllus can be propagated by seeds or cuttings. The trees should be planted 9-12 m apart. The tree becomes producive after 5 years and is claimed to survive 100 years. However, it has been recommended to remove 20-year-old trees for optimal yield (Orwa et al., 2009; Morton, 1987)

Environmental impact 

Erosion control, shelter and shade provider

Jackfruit trees can be used to control floods and soil erosion. They act as windbreaks and as shade providers in coffee plantations or in stands where livestock can benefit from their shade (Orwa et al., 2009). Jackfruit trees have been used as shade trees for residential buildings in Thai cities and were reported to help saving substantial cooling energy in the buildings (Akamphon et al., 2014)

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Fruits and fruit wastes

The composition of the fruit is extremely variable and depends on the maturity and variety. Generally, the fruit is rich in water (55-75%) and the dry matter is relatively poor in protein (<10% DM) though some studies report values higher than 20% DM. It is quite poor in fat (< 4% DM) with variable  of fibre (NDF 27-42% DM). The rest of the fruit consists in starch and sugars.


Jackfruit leaves are of moderate nutritional quality, with a protein content about 14% DM (10-19% DM) and a large range of fibre (NDF 28-51% DM) due to the variable proportion of twigs and stems included in the fodder.


There is considerable variation in the composition reported for jackfruit seeds in the literature. They are typically low to moderate in protein (10-18% DM), and low in fibre (crude fibre < 4% DM) and fat (< 2% DM). The rest of the seed consists in starch and sugars. Data about minerals and amino acids are inconsistent between sources. One article reports a particularly high value for cystine (9 g/16g N) (Amaechi et al., 2016) but this needs to be confirmed.


Jackfruit leaves, culled fruits and fruit rinds are used as for ruminants feeding.


Fruits and fruit wastes

Fresh jackfruits and fruit wastes are highly palatable to ruminants (Kusmartono, 2011). They can be a good source of energy due to their valuable amount of starch and high in vitro DM digestibility (84-85%) DM (Ribeiro Pereira et al., 2007; Arun et al., 2020). They can be fed fresh or ensiled (Arun et al., 2020; Azevedo et al., 2015; Azevedo et al., 2012). However, they must be supplemented with a nitrogen source due to their low protein protein (Kusmartono, 2011).


Jackfruit leaves can be a good source of protein but they must be supplemented with another protein source due to the presence of tannins content and to the low protein digestiblity or degradability.

The in sacco dry matter (DM) degradability of leaves is high: nearly 80% after 48 h (Keir et al., 1997a).

Protein digestibility and nitrogen retention are generally low, probably due to the high content in condensed tannins. In a trial in Vietnam, N retention values ranging from 15 to 23 % were reported with jackfruit leaves fed to lactating dairy goats at 2.7% of body weight in combination with whole sugar cane (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a). A similar level of N retention (26%) was observed when leaves (including twigs and stems) were fed alone to goats with respectively 62% of N excreted in the feces in Laos and 66 to 73% in Vietnam (Kongmanila et al., 2009; Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a).

In another Vietnamese trial with male goats (10 kg), the addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG, 2.5 g/d), known to combine with tannins and reduce their negative effects, increased protein digestibility from 50.5 to 59% and DM digestibility from 45 to 55.7 %. PEG reduced fecal nitrogen loss but not the urinary loss, which may confirm that tannins are responsible of the lower N and DM digestibility (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a). While condensed tannins were not measured in Vietnam, they were measured in Laos and were high (123g/kg DM)(Kongmanila et al., 2009; Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a).

In two trials in India, jackfruit leaves with a high content in condensed tannins (54 to 153 g/kg DM) were able to reduce methane production in sheep by 17 to 22 % (Malik et al., 2017; Gangwar et al., 2018).


Experiments using jackfruit leaves as a protein supplement in sheep diets (summarized in Table 1) have been done with growing animals, adults males or females at the end of gestation and early lactation. These trials show that jackfruit leaves can be a good source of protein and can replace some industrial by-products. Fruit silage, fresh fruit wastes or ensiled fruit wastes could be used as forage to replace straw or as an energy source in a concentrate. However, a source of nitrogen (urea) had to be added for balancing the diets. When fruit silage replaced maize meal as an energy source, in a concentrate, the level had to be limited to 33% for similar growth performance. Beyond this level, animal growth decreased.

Table 1. Use of jackfruit leaves and fruits in sheep diets

Product Animal type and breed Experiment Inclusion level Main results Country Reference

Mandya adult males

JKL incorporated into a
complete feed block in place
of wheat bran
4% into
feed block,
ad libitum
DMI and DMD were not different with 23.1 vs
23.5 g/kg body weight and 81.2 vs 81.8 % respectively
India Malik et al., 2017

Phan Rang growing
lambs (15kg)

JKL replace commercial concentrate into a diet based
on urea treated rice straw +
molasses for 12 weeks
ad libitum No effect on the diet DMI (0.74 vs 0.68 kg DM/d)
and DWG (70 vs 73 g/d); but the diet DMD was
lower (54 vs 63%).
Vietnam Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2008
Leaves Phan Rang pregnant mature ewes (30-45kg), from 12 weeks before lambing up to 3week after JKL plus sugarcane, cassava root, rice bran and MUB ad libitum BW increased up to 5kg before lambing; lamb DWG was 290 g/d


Vietnam Do Thi Thanh Van et al., 2002
Fruit silage Castrated males Santa Ines males (26kg) Fruit silage replaces 0 to 100% of corn meal into concentrate offered at 40% plus 60% Pennisetum purpureum silage 0, 33, 66 or 100% of corn in concentrate With 66 or 100% fruit silage, total DMI increased from 1.2 to 1.5 kg/d, DMD tended to decrease (63.2 to 60.9%) and DWG was lower (132 vs. 176 g/d) Brazil Azevedo et al., 2015
Jackfruit wastes Males, fat-tailed (17kg) Rice straw plus jackfruit wastes without or with 3% urea on DM basis ad libitum With urea, rice straw DMI increased from 59.4 to 105 g/d and jackfruit wastes decreased from 650 to 571 g/d, but total DMI did not change Indonesia

Kusmartono, 2002

Jackfruit wastes

Growing males, fat-tailed (25kg)

Rice straw, jackfruit wastes and molasses MUB for 84 days

ad libitum

Average DMI 1.48 g/d of these 70% are jackfruit wastes, 20% MUB and 10% rice straw; DWG was 95g/d and DMD 72.3%


Kusmartono, 2007

Jackfruit waste silage

Mandaya male lambs (9.6 kg)

Fruit waste silage replace 25 or 50% of Finger millet straw plus commercial concentrate

0, 25 or 50% of straw

Total DMI did not change (0.47- 0.50 kg/d); DMD tended to increase from 62.9 to 67.2%; DWG increased with 50% replacement from 81 to 98 g/d


Arun et al., 2020

JKL= Jackfruit leaves; MUB= molasses urea block; DMI = dry matter intake; DMD = dry matter digestibility; DWG= daily weight gain; BW= body weight; Jackfruit waste (aerial part, skin, seed and heart)


Experiments using jackfruit leaves as a protein supplement in goat diets are summarized in Table 2. Jackfruit leaves can be a good protein supplement for medium quality forage fed to goats (Reddy et al., 2009). However, they could not totally replace (at the same protein level) soybean meal in a diet based on whole sugarcane (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a). Their DM digestibility and protein digestibility were lower : respectively -7 to -10 points for DM and -26 to -29 points for protein (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a). When PEG was added to the diet, both DM and protein digestibilities increased (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a).

Dairy goats

In early to mid-lactation, dairy goats could be supplemented with jackfruit leaves if adequate amount of energy (molasses, sugarcane juice) was added. However, jackfruit leaves could not replace more than 20% of the concentrate (24 % protein) in the diet if the protein level of the diet was not maintained at the same level (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a).

Growing goats

Jackfruit leaves fed to goat kids (15 kg BW) alone (about 10% CP), had 51% DM digestibility and only 26% N digestibility, probably because of their low energy and to a lesser extent, to their low protein content (Kongmanila et al., 2009). Jackfruit leaves could be fed as protein source to growing kids fed with various low quality forages without (Ngo Hong Chin et al., 2012; Trinh Xuan Thanh et al., 2013; Setyono et al., 2019) or with other supplements as energy and/or protein source (Keir et al., 1997b; Islam et al., 1997; Nguyen Kim Lin et al., 2003). Leaves were always well consumed by the animals and the diets allowed a daily weight gain (DWG) of 30 to 84 g/d. Animal performance depended on the quality of the diet and on the level of the other supplements or the amount of jackfruit leaves (Table 2).

Compared to other tree leaves, jackfruit leaves were consumed in a greater extent and supported one of the highest daily weight gain (44 vs. -4 to 33 g/d). It was concluded that jackfruit leaves could replace up to 25 or 50% of concentrate in pasture or forage based rations (Das et al. 2007; Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2001).

Table 2. Use of jackfruit leaves in goat diets

Product Animal type and breed Experiment Inclusion level Main results Country Reference


Mixed dairy goats from the 5th to 12th wk of lactation

Leaves offered at 4% BW with rice straw treated with 4% ure and MUB ad libitum plus sugar cane top (5% BW) and 250g/d rice bran

4% BW

The leaves DMI was 1.64 kg/d and average milk yield was 765 g/d; BW increased by 1.8 kg and kid DWG was 48 g/d


Nguyen Thi Duyen et al., 1996


Bach Thao dairy goats from the 5th to 8th wk of lactation

Leaves and MUB ad libitum with or without 2 kg/d sugar cane juice.

ad libitum

Leaves intake decreased with sug cane juice (from 3.86 to 3.5 kg fresh matter); milk yield tended to slightly increased with sugarcane juice (0.33 to 0.42 kg/d);


Nguyen Thi Hong Nhan et al., 1997


Mixed breeds lactating goats (30-45 kg) from 4th week of lactation

Leaves replace concentrate as supplement with 0.28 kg DM whole sugar cane, 0.65 kg DM Para grass (Brachiaria mutica), 0.46 kg DM cassava root and 0.5 kg concentrate for 56 d

20, 40, 60 or 80% of concentrate

Increasing the level of leaves beyond 20% decreased sugar cane DMI from 178 to 134 g/d and Para grass from 444 to 412 g/d; total milk yield also decreased with more than 20% replacement from 1.76 to 1.43 kg/d without modification of milk composition


Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002b


Bach Thao growing goats (16 kg)

Leaves supplemented (1.5 % BW) to Cassava stems ad libitum for 12 weeks

1.5 % BW

DMI of leaves was 305 g/d plus 353 g/d cassava stem; DWG was 49.5 g/d


Trinh Xuan Thanh et al., 2013


Bach Thao x Co goats (18.5 kg)

Leaves are fed as supplement to Tithonia diversifolia forage for 12 weeks

1 % BW

DMI of leaves and Tithonia were 284 and 421 g/d; DWG was 84 g/d


Ngo Hong Chin et al., 2012


Bligon female goats (13 kg)

Leaves replace 50% of the King grass forage

50% of forage

Leaves increased total DMI by 50% (70.3 vs 35.6 g/kg BW) and DMD from 57.2 to 74%; and allow a small DWG of about 30g/d


Setyono et al., 2019


Indian Babari kids (11 kg)

Leaves with MUB ad libitum for 6 weeks

ad libitum

Leaves DMI was 1.45 kg fresh/d; the diet DMD was 66%. DWG was 69 g/d


Keir et al., 1997b


Growing male and female Bachthao (B) and B x Barbari (9-14 kg)

Leaves fed with basal diet (rice bran, MUB, hay) for 150 d

ad libitum

Leaves DMI was 0.45 kg/d among a total of .70 kg/d; DWG was 39 g/d


Nguyen Kim Lin et al., 2003


Black Bengal castrated males (11 kg)

Common grass supplemented or not with 100g jackfruit leaves or 100g mungo bean bran for 60d


DMI was not different in the three diets; diet DMD was lower with jackfruit leaves (66 vs 70%); DWG was not different with or without leaves (30 g/d) but lower than with bran (57 g/d)


Islam et al., 1997


unknown breed castrated male goat (8.5-8.8 kg)

Leaves offered with 140g concentrate and compared to other tree leaves

ad libitum

Leaves DMI was the highest with 400g/d and the diet OMD was intermediate with 66%. DWG was almost as high as Leucaena leaves with 44 vs 53 g/d


Kibria et al., 1994


Mixed breed males and females (11-12 kg)

Leaves replace concentrate as supplement with 0.1 to 0.15 kg DM whole sugar cane, 0.35 to 0.4 kg DM Para grass (Brachiaria mutica) and 0.15 to 0.175 kg DM concentrate for 90 d

0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%

Leaves were almost completely consumed (92-95%) up to 75% replacement then DMI was only 71%; Meanwhile sugar cane and Para grass DMI decreased; DWG decreased with 75 (44 g/d) and 100% (30 g/d) levels compared to 53-58 g/d


Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2001


Black Bengal male kids (3.8-4.9 kg)

Leaves replace up to 50% of concentrate fed at 2% BW to kids at pasture for 85 d

0, 25 or 50% of concentrate

Pasture DMI and diet DMD increased with leaves level (265 to 288 g/d and 61.8 to 63.6 %); DWG was lower (33.8 g/d) at 50% than with 0 or 25% (47.3 and 45.1 g/d). But CP intake was also lower.


Das et al., 2007

JKL= Jackfruit leaves; MUB= molasses urea block; CP = crude proteins; DMI = dry matter intake; DMD = dry matter digestibility; DWG= daily weight gain; BW= body weight


Only one reference could be found on the utilization of jackfruit in cattle. In Indonesia, ongole steers (137 kg BW) could be fed with rice straw plus jackfruit wastes (aerial part, skin, seed and heart) without or with urea brought in different forms. DM intake of rice straw decreased with urea from 1.64 to 1.47 – 1.34 kg/d and the DM intake of jackfruit wastes decreased from 1.45 to 1.29 kg/d only when urea was added to jackfruit wastes. Conversely, the DM digestibility of the diet increased when urea was added, whatever the form, from 55.4 to 58.6 - 60.7% (Kusmartono, 2002).


Jackfruit leaves, fruits or fruit wastes can be introduced in diets for lactating or growing animals. Jackfruit products are generally well consumed by the animals whatever the presentation. However, an appropriate supplement (energy and/or protein) must be provided to enhance the utilization of the leaves, fruits or fruit wastes in order to properly balance the diet. Deoending on the presentation of the leaves (hung above the , chopped or tied or leaves and stems separated in the trough), the intake by goats can be different. In some situations, they eat more leaves and stems when they are tied or when leaves and stems are separated in the trough rather than chopped or hung (Do Thi Thanh Van et al., 2005). In other situations, a higher DM intake was observed when stems and leaves were hung rather than put into the trough (Phengvilaysouk et al., 2006).

Anthelminthic and antiparasitic fodder

Jackfruit leaves used in diets for growing lambs or goats or adult goats were reported to limit the number of internal parasites (Nguyen Kim Lin et al., 2003; Khuc Thi Hue et al., 2008; Setyono et al., 2019). Products extracted from seeds also had anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus by inhibition of the lactate dehydrogenase in adult worm (Davuluri et al., 2020).


Jackfruits and their wastes are rich in energy and are referred to as a valuable feed resource for pigs (Nansereko et al., 2021; Elevitch et al., 2006). However, no reference about their use in pigs could be found (as of 2021).


Seed meal

In Nigeria, the inclusion of raw jackfruit seed meal was assessed as an alternative feed resource for broilers, during 8 weeks in Nigeria. Increasing inclusion levels (10%; 20% and 30% of soybean meal) of jackfruit seed meal in the diet of broilers depressed growth performance and hindered Feed : Gain ratio. It was concluded that jackfruit seed meal should be included at only a restricted level of 10% replacement of soybean meal (Eburuaja et al., 2017). A similar experiment with toasted jackfruit seed meal was done in 2-week old chickens to replace 5%, 10% or 15% of dietary soybean meal. It was also concluded that toasted jackfruit seed meal could only be used at a low level of inclusion (5%) to avoid detrimental effect on animal performance en Feed: Gain ratio (Eburuaja et al., 2019).



A study was conducted in India on the effect on rabbit growth rate of the distribution of an extruded diet containing 15% jackfruit dried leaves in comparison with other tree leaves as source of fibre (Pasupathi et al., 2015). With jackfruit leaves the growth rate was close to that obtained with the Desmanthus virgatus control diet (9.3 vs 10.1 g/d) but higher than that obtained with Leucaena leucocephala leaves (8.8 g/d). In another 8-week study with growing rabbits, fresh jackfruit leaves were introduced in addition to a concentrate diet, at 50% of DM intake of rabbits. Average daily gain of rabbits was a little bit lower than with the control ration (13.4 vs 15.2 g/d) but again better than the growth rate obtained in the same conditions with Leucaena leucocephala leaves (11.3 g/d) (Pasupathi et al., 2016, Pasupathi et al., 2017).

According to these results, jackfruit leaves, fresh or dried, seem to be a suitable safe forage for growing rabbits. However, it should be noted that the nutritive value of jackfruit leaves nutritive value is highly variable and an inclusion level of 15% in the ration seems reasonable.

No information could be found in the international literature (as of 2021) on the use of jackfruit leaves in the feeding of lactating rabbit does. However, because this forage is suitable for growing rabbits or for lactating goats (Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2002a; Bakshi et al., 2016), it could most probably be suitable for lactating or breeding rabbit does.


No information could be found (as of 2021) in the international literature on the utilisation of  jackfruits in rabbit feeding. Nevertheless, ruminants and pigs readily eat fallen fruits, and fruit wastes are referred to as valuable fodder for cattle, pigs, goats and other small ruminants (Elevitch et al., 2006Prakash et al., 2009). Thus, fruits (cut in pieces) and fruit wastes could be considered as suitable material for rabbit feeding. Fruits and fruit wastes should mainly be regarded as source of starchy energy due to their low protein and fibre content (Amadi et al., 2018).


As for fruits, no information could be found in the international literature (as of 2021) on the use of jackfruit seeds in rabbit feeding. Some in vitro studies demonstrated an important anti-protease activity in the raw seeds tested with a rabbit pancreatic preparation (Bhat et al., 1989). Since raw jackfruit seeds and heat-treated jackfruits seeds could be included in broiler chicken diet at low levels (Eburuaja et al., 2019; Eburuaja et al., 2017), it could thus be considered that raw or heated jackfruit seed flour is a potential source of fibre and proteins in rabbit feeding (Ocloo et al., 2010; Bakshi et al., 2016; Chhetri et al., 2016). Direct experiments with rabbits would be necessary to determine the optimum inclusion level and the usefulness of heat treatments of jackfruit seeds. The seed content in sulphur amino acids is about 2.5 times the rabbit requirements, but lysine is only 85% of those requirements (Amaechi et al., 2016; Lebas, 2013).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 37 6.9 26.9 53 15  
Crude protein % DM 14.4 2.3 9.8 18.5 19  
Crude fibre % DM 21 5 15.5 27.5 6  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 41 8.2 28.4 50.6 14  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 29.7 5.4 23.8 38.4 8  
Lignin % DM 8.5 3.4 5.9 14.4 5  
Ether extract % DM 3.7 0.8 2.8 5 8  
Ash % DM 11.3 2.1 8.8 17.5 17  
Insoluble ash % DM 3.8   2.9 4.7 3  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9         *
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 14.7 3.4 11 20 5  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.2 2.2 1.1 6.4 5  
Potassium g/kg DM 20.5       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 1.9   1.7 2.1 2  
Zinc mg/kg DM 107       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 5       1  
Iron mg/kg DM 449       1  
Secondary metabolites Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Tannins (eq. tannic acid) g/kg DM 60   6 150 3  
Tanins, condensed (eq. catechin) g/kg DM 90 80 3 190 5  
In vitro digestibility and solubility Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
In vitro OM digestibility (pepsin) % 52       1  
In vitro DM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase) % 53       1  
In vitro OM digestibility (pepsin-cellulase) % 52       1  
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 68.7         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 65.7         *
DE ruminants MJ/kg DM 11.8         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 9.5         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 48.8   38.4 61.6 3  
Dry matter degradability (effective, k=6%) % 43       1 *
Dry matter degradability (effective, k=4%) % 51         *
a (DM) % 9       1  
b (DM) % 74       1  
c (DM) h-1 0.052       1  
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 9         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 8.5         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 50         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 60.2         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Baba et al., 2002; CIRAD, 1991; Devasia et al., 1976; Dey et al., 2006; Gowda et al., 2004; Ibrahim et al., 1995; Keir et al., 1997; Kibria et al., 1994; Kongmanila et al., 2009; Ledin et al., 2002; Lim Han Kuo, 1967; Ly et al., 2001; Malik et al., 1967; Ngo Hong Chin et al., 2012; Nguyen Thi Duyen et al., 1996; Nguyen Thi Mui et al., 2000; Nguyen Van Sao et al., 2010; Pal et al., 2015; Pathoummalangsy et al., 2008; Reddy et al., 2008

Last updated on 20/11/2021 22:56:31

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 77.4 12.8 57.8 93.9 7  
Crude protein % DM 12.7 3.1 9.6 18.1 7  
Crude fibre % DM 2.8   1.6 3.8 4  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 14.9         *
Acid detergent fibre % DM 3.8         *
Ether extract % DM 1.4   1.3 1.7 4  
Ash % DM 3.5 0.9 2.1 4.9 7  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 15.5   12.9 17.9 3 *
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9         *
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine g/16g N 3.7       1  
Arginine g/16g N 6.9       1  
Aspartic acid g/16g N 4.1       1  
Cystine g/16g N 8.1       1  
Glutamic acid g/16g N 12.3       1  
Glycine g/16g N 3.2       1  
Histidine g/16g N 2.2       1  
Isoleucine g/16g N 4.6       1  
Leucine g/16g N 6.3       1  
Lysine g/16g N 5.5       1  
Methionine g/16g N 1.9       1  
Methionine+cystine g/16g N 9.9         *
Phenylalanine g/16g N 4.6       1  
Phenylalanine+tyrosine g/16g N 8.2         *
Proline g/16g N 3.3       1  
Serine g/16g N 4.5       1  
Threonine g/16g N 3.8       1  
Tyrosine g/16g N 3.6       1  
Valine g/16g N 4.2       1  
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 3.1       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.4   1.2 1.7 3  
Potassium g/kg DM 3.7   0.01 14.8 4  
Sodium g/kg DM 0.06       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 2.2   1.5 3.4 4  
Sulfur g/kg DM 0.5   0.3 0.8 3  
Manganese mg/kg DM 1       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 23   15 31 3  
Copper mg/kg DM 25   10 41 4  
Iron mg/kg DM 131       1  
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 85.3         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 15.3         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 14.7         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 10.2         *
Nitrogen digestibility, growing pig % 74.5         *
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 10.4         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 10.4         *
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 88.5         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 85.6         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.8         *
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 14.8         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 82.6         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Abedin et al., 2012; Amaechi et al., 2016; Azeez et al., 2015; Ocloo et al., 2010

Last updated on 21/11/2021 15:20:18

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 35.3 7 27.8 45.9 5  
Crude protein % DM 12.9 7.4 6.3 22.4 6  
Crude fibre % DM 8.1   7.3 8.9 2  
Neutral detergent fibre % DM 34.6   27.1 42.7 4  
Acid detergent fibre % DM 25.3   15 38.7 4  
Lignin % DM 3.1   1.3 4.7 4  
Ether extract % DM 1.8   0.7 3.4 4  
Ash % DM 5.1 1.9 3.1 7.5 6  
Starch (polarimetry) % DM 16.7         *
Starch (enzymatic) % DM 12.5   10 15 2  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.9         *
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 68         *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.2         *
MEn growing pig MJ/kg DM 11.7         *
NE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.1         *
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AMEn cockerel MJ/kg DM 9.5         *
AMEn broiler MJ/kg DM 9.3         *
Ruminants nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
OM digestibility, ruminants % 88.9         *
Energy digestibility, ruminants % 86.1         *
ME ruminants MJ/kg DM 12.8         *
Nitrogen digestibility, ruminants % 77.5         *
Rabbit nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
DE rabbit MJ/kg DM 11.3         *
MEn rabbit MJ/kg DM 10.9         *
Energy digestibility, rabbit % 63.3         *
Nitrogen digestibility, rabbit % 65         *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.


Arun et al., 2020; Azevedo et al., 2012; Madrigal-Aldana et al., 2011; Ribeiro Pereira et al., 2007

Last updated on 21/11/2021 15:22:43

Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., Hassoun P., Lebas F., 2021. Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). Feedipedia, a programme by INRAE, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://www.feedipedia.org/node/185 Last updated on November 22, 2021, 9:46