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Papaya (Carica papaya) fruits, leaves and by-products

Datasheet

Description
Click on the "Nutritional aspects" tab for recommendations for ruminants, pigs, poultry, rabbits, horses, fish and crustaceans
Common names 

Papaya, pawpaw, papaw [English]; mamão, papaia, mamoeiro, papaeira [Portuguese]; papaja [Afrikaans]; papayer, melon des tropiques [French]; papaya, papayón, papayo, mamón, lechosa [Spanish]; fruta bomba [Spanish/Cuba]; papayero [Spanish/Mexico]; pepaya [Indonesian]; katès [Javanese]; papaja [Dutch]; mpapai [Swahili]; papay [Haitian Creole]; betik [Malay]; Melonowiec właściwy [Polish]; babaay [Somali]; gedang [Sundanese]; Đu đủ [Vietnamese]; 番木瓜 [Chinese]; ፓፓያ [Amharic]; ببايا  [Arabic]; পেঁপে [Bengali]; Παπάγια [Greek]; પપૈયાં [Gujarati]; 파파야 [Korean]; पपीता [Hindi]; פפאיה [Hebrew]; ໝາກຫຸ່ງ [Lao]; പപ്പായ [Malayalam]; पपई [Marathi]; パパイア [Japanese]; ਪਪੀਤਾ [Punjabi]; Папайя, ды́нное де́рево [Russian]; பப்பாளி [Tamil]; బొప్పాయి [Telugu]; มะละกอ [Thai]; پپیتا [Urdu]

Related feed(s) 
Description 

The papaya tree (Carica papaya L.) is a fast growing perennial branchless tree up to 10 m high, with a crown of very large palmate leaves, at the base of which the fruits are clustered. It is mainly cultivated for its edible fruits which appear 10 months after planting. They are pyriform, orange or red-orange when ripe and may weigh up to 9 kg each. Fruits are tasty, sweet and juicy. Papaya fruits are a palatable feedstuff and the leaves and fruit by-products are also used to feed animals (Ecoport, 2009; Ecocrop, 2009).

Distribution 

Papaya is thought to have originated from Mexico and Central America. It was spread during the 16th century, by Spanish explorers, from Central America to the Caribbean and South-East Asia. It is now widespread in the tropics (between 32°N and S) in South America, Africa and Asia, and in the warm subtropics (Oceania).

Optimal growth conditions are temperatures between 21 and 33°C, from sea level to an altitude of 1600 m, with 1200 mm annual rainfall. It requires light well-drained soils, rich in organic matter (soil pH of 6.0-6.5) (Villegas, 1991). Warm and sunny seasons enhance fruit quality. Shade is important as well as windbreaks. Papaya is sensitive to salinity and frost, and does not tolerate waterlogging and flooding (Ecoport, 2009).

Environmental impact 

Papaya cultivation requires heavy fertilizer applications because nutrient removal is reported to be 1 kg N, 0.2 kg P and 2.5 kg K/t fruit. Use of manure and mulch steadies the release of nutrients (Villegas, 1991).

Nutritional aspects
Potential constraints 

Papaya fruit (when unripe), as well as bark, leaves and seeds, contain a proteolytic enzyme, papain, that degrades proteins into amino-acids and is used to tenderize meat.

Ruminants 

Papaya pomace

Papaya pomace is the by-product containing peels and seeds obtained after extraction of juice from the fruit. It is a potential alternative feedstuff since it has a high protein content (Naveen et al., 2007). Dry matter and protein digestibility in buffaloes are up to 49.9% and 51.4% respectively (Ramesh Babu et al., 2003). Papaya juice by-products were found to have a higher energy value than maize silage and could partly replace energy concentrates in diets for growing cattle (Azevêdo et al., 2011).

Pigs 

Papaya fruits

Papaya fruits supplemented with concentrates have been fed to pigs with good results (Henke, 1949; Göhl, 1982).

Rabbits 

Papaya leaves

Papaya leaves given to crossbred weaned rabbits had a better feeding value than Guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) and Tridax procumbens (Taiwo et al., 2005).

Fish 

Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

Papaya leaf meal included at 13 to 18% in the diet of Asian sea bass gave lower growth than the control diet (Eusebio et al., 2000).

Crustaceans 

Papaya leaf meal

Prawns

Indian prawns (Fenneropenaeus indicus, formerly Penaeus indicus), fed a soybean meal-based diet with papaya leaf meal replacing 9% of the protein, had a non-significantly lower weight gain, growth rate and survival rate than those fed the control diet (Eusebio et al., 1998).

Other species 

Giant West African snail (Archachatina marginata)

Papaya fruits

Papaya fruits can be used as a cheap source of feed to Archachatina marginata though they give lower performances than bananas. Ripe fruits are preferable to unripe ones (Agbogidi et al., 2008).

Papaya peels and papaya leaves

Papaya peels and leaves fed to giant West African snails gave the best results in feed intake, weight gain and shell increment with no adverse effects when compared to other tropical fruit by-products (mango, plantain and cocoyam) (Omole et al., 2004).

Nutritional tables

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 20.9 2.2 19.3 24.6 5  
Crude protein % DM 25.6 4.3 20.9 32.6 8  
Crude fibre % DM 12.5 2.5 7.3 14.8 8  
Ether extract % DM 6.6 5.5 0.4 10.7 5  
Ash % DM 13.2 3.2 7.6 16.1 7  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 18.4         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 34.6   23.8 45.4 2  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 3.5   2.2 4.9 2  
Potassium g/kg DM 30.4       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 8.5       1  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

CIRAD, 1991; Holm, 1971; Malik et al., 1967; Munguti et al., 2012; Omole et al., 2004; Oyenuga, 1968

Last updated on 19/02/2015 17:06:32

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.5 1
Crude protein % DM 23.5 1
Crude fibre % DM 10.6 1
Ether extract % DM 4.2 1
Ash % DM 12.3 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Walker, 1975

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 9.3 1
Crude protein % DM 9.0 1
Crude fibre % DM 6.9 1
Ether extract % DM 0.5 1
Ash % DM 4.6 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.4 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 79.3 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 13.8 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Cirad, 2008; Omole et al., 2004

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 92.2 1
Crude protein % DM 18.2 17.9 18.4 2
Crude fibre % DM 26.7 23.9 29.6 2
NDF % DM 42.1 1
ADF % DM 37.1 1
Lignin % DM 6.8 6.7 6.8 2
Ether extract % DM 4.7 1
Ash % DM 18.7 1
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.0 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 18.1 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 6.1 1
 
Ruminant nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
a (N) % 13.7 1
b (N) % 56.2 1
c (N) h-1 0.101 1
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=4%) % 54 *
Nitrogen degradability (effective, k=6%) % 49 *
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 48.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 8.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Naveen et al., 2007; Ramesh Babu et al., 2003

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:14

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Dry matter % as fed 8.2 7.2 9.1 2
Crude protein % DM 11.3 11.1 11.4 2
Crude fibre % DM 12.1 11.7 12.5 2
Ether extract % DM 1.0 0.8 1.2 2
Ash % DM 8.4 7.4 9.4 2
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 17.1 *
 
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Calcium g/kg DM 2.3 1
Phosphorus g/kg DM 1.6 1
 
Pig nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb
Energy digestibility, growing pig % 71.1 *
DE growing pig MJ/kg DM 12.2 *

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Devendra et al., 1970; Oyenuga, 1968

Last updated on 24/10/2012 00:43:13

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Papaya (Carica papaya) fruits, leaves and by-products. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://feedipedia.org/node/522 Last updated on May 11, 2015, 14:33

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)