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Housefly maggot meal

Datasheet

Description
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Common names 

Housefly maggot meal, maggot meal, housefly maggots, house fly maggots, magmeal, housefly pupae meal, house fly pupae

Description 

The housefly (Musca domestica Linnaeus 1758) is the most common fly (Diptera) species. It is a worldwide pest and a major carrier of diseases, as both the larvae (maggots) and the adult flies feed on manure and decaying organic wastes. The ability of housefly maggots to grow on a large range of substrates can make them useful to turn wastes into a valuable biomass rich in protein and fat. Producing housefly maggot biomass in controlled conditions to feed farm animals has been investigated since the late 1960s (Calvert et al., 1969; Miller et al., 1969). Particularly, housefly larvae grown on poultry litter have shown to be used with great benefits as a potential protein source in poultry nutrition (Pretorius, 2011). The use of housefly maggots to feed fish and crustaceans in pond farming has been studied extensively since the late 2000s. Other Musca species have been investigated to a lesser extent, such as the face fly Musca autumnalis (De Geer) (Koo et al., 1980).

Life cycle

Under natural conditions, housefly eggs hatch after 8 to 12 hours. The larval stage lasts about 5 days and the pupal stage 4 to 5 days. This 10-day cycle can be shortened to 6 days under controlled conditions. Adult female flies lay 500-600 eggs under natural conditions and more than 2000 eggs under controlled ones. The flies lay eggs in moist substrates such as manure and garbage heaps. Maggots feed for 4-5 days and then migrate to pupate in a dry place. The adult fly feeds mainly on decaying organic matter. It needs to liquefy the food by regurgitating droplets of saliva, thereby transmitting pathogens. The flies mate and lay eggs between feeding periods. Large populations of flies can be obtained from relatively small amounts of substrate: for instance, 450 grams of fresh manure can feed 1500 maggots (Hardouin et al., 2003).

Production

Various methods for producing and harvesting maggots have been described in the literature. Early experiments investigated pupae rather than larvae because pupae collection was believed to be easier (Calvert et al., 1969), but these technical issues have since been solved. Poultry manure is the most common substrate cited in the literature for housefly rearing (Hardouin et al., 2003; Akpodiete et al., 1997), sometimes using a fly attractant like animal offal or rotten fruit (Odesanya et al., 2011). Other substrates mentioned in the literature include: pig manure (Viroje et al., 1988Zhu et al., 2012); cattle blood and wheat bran (Aniebo et al., 2008); cattle blood and gut contents (Dankwa et al., 2002); cattle gut and rumen contents (Ekoue et al., 2000); fish guts (Ossey et al., 2012); and a mixture of egg content, hatchery waste and wheat bran (Ebenso et al., 2003). Usually the technique involves filling tanks or crates with manure sprinkled regularly with water to keep the manure wet and attract the flies. A moisture range of 60 to 75% is suitable for larval development. Temperatures should be in the 25-30°C range since maggots are inactive and develop poorly at temperatures below 20°C (Miller et al., 1974).

Maggots are harvested by several methods. In the flotation method, the manure is mixed with water and the larvae and pupae float out to be collected with a sieve. In the screening method, the manure is spread in a thin layer on a sieve (3 mm) placed over a basin under sunlight: the larvae try to escape the light by passing through the screen and fall into the basin (Sogbesan et al., 2006). The collected larvae are washed, killed in tepid or hot water and then dried and milled. More sophisticated collection methods that make the larvae self-collect have been designed (El Boushy et al., 1985).

Distribution 

Houseflies are a common species worldwide. However, optimal production of maggots requires warm temperatures (over 25°C) and moisture.

Processes 

Most trials have been done with sun-dried (or oven-dried) and ground larvae. There have been some attempts at defatting or hydrolyzing the maggots (Fasakin et al., 2003). Housefly maggots can be also be fed live, especially to backyard chickens (Dankwa et al., 2002Ekoue et al., 2000) and fish (Ebenso et al., 2003Madu et al., 2003). 

Environmental impact 

Housefly larvae are able to break up and dry out large amounts of poultry manure, and this ability makes them a potential solution to waste management in poultry farms (El Boushy et al., 1985).

Nutritional aspects
Nutritional attributes 

Housefly maggots are a source of protein and lipids, and the protein and fat contents are high and extremely variable. The crude protein content varies between 40 and 60% DM. Lipid content is even more variable and ranges between 9 and 25% DM. Pupae and older larvae contain less protein and more lipids (Inaoka et al., 1999; Aniebo et al., 2008; Aniebo et al., 2010) (this is not reflected on average values due to the high variability of larvae composition). Sun-drying may in some cases result in less protein and more lipids than oven-drying (Aniebo et al., 2010). Maggots contain a limited but not negligible amount of crude fibre, usually lower than 9% DM, but higher values have been reported for ADF. The fatty acid profile of housefly larvae is largely influenced by nutrition, changes in which can have a marked affect on the profile. For example larvae fed milk powder, sugar and layer manure had a fatty acid profile suitable for broiler growth (Hwangbo et al., 2009).

Potential constraints 

Disease transmission

The housefly is a known carrier of pathogens and the inclusion of maggot meal in livestock diets raises concerns about potential transmission of diseases. Particularly, there is a risk that bacteria or fungi present in the maggot-rearing substrate, which is usually poultry manure, carry over to the finished maggot meal, especially when the keeping quality of the maggot meal is uncertain. However, experiments have not reported contamination due to feeding maggot meal to poultry or fish. 

In Nigeria, 9 month-old stored samples of dried, milled housefly larvae were found to be prone to deterioration by fungi and bacteria when the moisture content was too high (23%). It was recommended to dry the meal to 4-5% moisture to minimize bacterial activity. After processing, protection from moisture absorption can be achieved by waterproof bagging (with cellophane or nylon) and heat-sealing (Awoniyi et al., 2004b). Generally, care should be taken to assure that adequate heating takes place during the drying process to assure that any pathogenic organisms that were present have been destroyed (Rocas, 1983).

As with other animal products, users are invited to check their local regulations to verify that using housefly maggots for feeding farm animals is legal in their country.

Toxicity

One experiment reported an increase in liver and gizzard mass in broilers when the level of maggot meal increased from 1 to 2% (50 to 100% substitution of fish meal), suggesting potential toxic effects (Téguia et al., 2002). However, a later experiment reported that housefly larvae meal included at 50% in broiler diets did not induce gizzard erosion or show toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract, impair the immune system or cause organ stress (Pretorius, 2011). An experiment on rats has reported histological damages on liver and kidneys when maggot meal was included at 10% in the diet (Bouafou et al., 2011b).

Consumer acceptance

Consumer acceptance of animal products derived from livestock fed with maggots could be a problem. In a Nigerian study, meat obtained from broilers fed a maggot-based diet was found to have no distinctive organoleptic qualities and to be acceptable by consumers (Awoniyi, 2007).

Ruminants 

No information found (2013).

Pigs 

There is limited information on the use of housefly maggots for pig feeding. In Russia, sows and their offspring were fed a diet containing processed housefly maggots with no adverse effect on piglet performance, health and organoleptic properties, or on the sows' physiology and breeding performance (Bayandina et al., 1980). In Thailand, weaned pigs were fed with 10% maggot meal with no negative effect on body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency (Viroje et al., 1989). In Nigeria, early weaned pigs tolerated up to 10% of a 3:1 mixture of dried rumen contents and maggot meal in the diet without any adverse effect on performance (Adeniji, 2008).

Poultry 

Poultry farms in subtropical and tropical countries are potential consumers of housefly maggot meal. While initial investigations were carried out in the United States, most of the studies have been or are being done in Sub-Saharan Africa, especially Nigeria, and to a lesser extent in Asia.

Energy and digestibility

There are limited data on the metabolizable energy value of housefly maggots (14.2 MJ/kg DM, Pretorius, 2011; 17.9 MJ/kg DM, Zuidhof et al., 2003). The energy value is highly dependent on the fat content and on the amount of fibre in the housefly maggot meal. Total tract amino acid digestibility is high (95%, Zuidhof et al., 2003; 91%, Pretorius, 2011).

Rural poultry

Live maggots can be a valuable supplement to the diet of rural chickens. In Ghana, the supplementation of 30-50 g/d/bird of live maggots to scavenging backyard chickens resulted in higher growth rate (until the 5th month), clutch size, egg weight, number of eggs hatched, and chick weight (Dankwa et al., 2002). A similar preliminary test in Togo was also positive, as the chickens seemed particularly fond of moving larvae (Ekoue et al., 2000).

Broilers

Maggot meal has been included in broiler diets as a replacement for conventional protein sources, notably fish meal. Most trials indicate that partial or even total replacement of fish meal is possible, though the optimal inclusion rate is generally lower than 10%. Higher rates have resulted in lower intake and performance, perhaps due to a decrease in palatability, as the darker colour of the meal may be less appealing to chickens (Atteh et al., 1993Bamgbose, 1999). Methionine supplementation is recommended (Bamgbose, 1999).

Trials on broilers and the obtained results are summarized in the table below:

Country Animal Experiment Results Reference
Nigeria 25-day old broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-100% groundnut cake Replaced 100% groundnut cake (22% diet as fed) without adverse effect on performance. Non-significant trend to lower feed intake and weight gain at 75 and 100% substitution. Adeniji, 2007
Nigeria 120-day old broilers 4:1 mixture of dried cassava peels and maggot meal replacing 0-100% maize grain Mixture of cassava peels and maggots replaced 50% maize (29% diet as fed) in order to save cost. Adesina et al., 2011
Nigeria 0-56 days broilers Maggot meal replacing 75% fish meal protein No adverse effect on performance and higher economic returns. Akpodiete et al., 2000
Nigeria 0-5 weeks broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-100% fish meal Replaced up to 33% fish meal (9% diet as fed) without adverse effects on intake and weight gain. At higher rates, lower intake could be associated to the darker colour of the maggot diets. Atteh et al., 1993
Nigeria 3-week old broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-100% fish meal protein Could replace up to 25% fish meal protein (1.17% diet as fed) for profitable results. Awoniyi et al., 2003
Nigeria 0-8 weeks broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-100% meat and bone meal Replaced up to 100% meat and bone meal (8% diet as fed) if the diet was supplemented with methionine. Bamgbose, 1999
Philippines 21-day old broilers Maggot meal compared to fish meal, meat and bone meal and soybean meal Was included at up to 10% in the diet with no adverse effect on intake, body weight, feed conversion and palatability. Cadag et al., 1981
USA 0-2 weeks broilers Pupae meal replacing 100% soybean meal Replaced soybean meal with no effect on gain, intake and feed efficiency. Calvert et al., 1969
South Korea 0-3 and 3-5 weeks broilers Maggot meal at 0-20% in a balanced diet Maggot supplementation caused increased live weight gain but had no effect on the feed conversion ratio. The 10-15% maggots diet gave the best weight gain for the 4-5 weeks broilers and increased dressing percentage, weight of breast muscle and thigh muscle, muscle lysine and tryptophan levels. Hwangbo et al., 2009
Japan 0-24 days broilers Maggot meal at 7% in a balanced diet replacing fish meal Identical growth performance, feed conversion ratio and meat composition; higher dressing percentage in maggot-fed broilers. Inaoka et al., 1999
Nigeria 35-day old broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-50% fish meal Could replace 50% fish meal (2% diet as fed) with higher performance and economic returns Okah et al., 2012
South Africa 0-35 days broilers Maggot meal included at 10-50% in the diet The 25% maggot meal diet yielded better live weights, feed intake and daily gain when compared to the 25% fish meal diet in the growth phases. Chicks that received either the 10% house fly larvae meal or 10% fish meal supplementation produced significantly heavier carcasses and breast muscle portions than the chicks that received the commercial maize:soybean meal diet. No treatment differences were found regarding breast and thigh muscle colour or pH. Pretorius, 2011
China Yellow dwarf 8-63 days broilers Maggot meal included at 4.4% in the diet Supplementation with maggot meal enhanced feed intake and average daily gain at 8-21 days with no negative effect on the slaughter performance and meat quality. Performance differences were non significant in the later stages. Ren et al., 2011
Cameroon 0-42 days broilers Maggot meal replacing 0-15% fish meal (0-6.75% of diet) in starter diets and 0-100% (0-2% of diet) in finisher diets The replacement of fish meal with maggot meal starter and grower finisher diets resulted in higher weight gains and comparable carcass yields. Téguia et al., 2002
USA 0-7 weeks broilers Pupae meal included at 28% in the diet, replacing other protein sources (soybean meal, fish meal and meat and bone meal) No difference in growth rate, carcass quality and taste but lower final weight and feed intake for pupae-fed broilers. Teotia et al., 1973
USA 0-4 weeks broilers Pupae meal included at 8% in the diet, replacing fish meal and meat and bone meal No difference in growth rate. Teotia et al., 1973

Laying hens

In a seven-month layer feeding trial, maggot meal replaced meat and bone meal, the results indicating that maggot meal increased egg yield and hatchability (Ernst et al., 1984). In 50-week old laying hens, maggot meal could replace 50% of fish meal protein (5% diet as fed) without adverse effects on egg production and shell strength. However, 100% replacement was deleterious to hen-day production (Agunbiade et al., 2007).

Fish 

The use of housefly maggots as supplements in the diets of tilapia and catfish species (Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus longifilis) has been reported in Nigeria (Madu et al., 2003).

African catfish Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus longifilis and hybrids

There have been numerous experiments in Nigeria on the use of maggots in the diets of African catfish, mostly Clarias gariepinus, as reported in the table below. The results are generally positive though the inclusion of maggot meal should be limited to 25-30% as performance tends to decrease when higher inclusion rates are used.

Country Animal Experiment Results Reference
Nigeria Clarias gariepinus fingerlings 4:3:2 mixture of feather meal, chicken offal meal and maggot meal replacing 0-100% fish meal Replaced 50% fish meal (30% of diet as fed) without adverse effect on weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, and protein efficiency ratio. Lower performance at 75 and 100% substitution. Adewolu et al., 2010
Nigeria Clarias gariepinus fingerlings Maggot meal (cattle blood and wheat bran substrate) replacing 0-100% fish meal Replaced 100% fish meal (25% diet as fed) without adverse effect on growth performance and nutrient utilization. Aniebo et al., 2009
Nigeria Clarias gariepinus fingerlings Full-fat sun-dried and oven-dried maggot meal replacing fish meal Fish fed 34-35% full-fat maggot meal had lower growth performance and survival than fish fed 25% fish meal. Fasakin et al., 2003
Nigeria Clarias gariepinus fingerlings Defatted, sun-dried and oven-dried maggot meal replacing fish meal Fish fed 27% defatted oven-dried maggot meal (27% in the diet) had similar growth rates and survival as fish fed 25% fish meal. Fasakin et al., 2003
Nigeria Clarias gariepinus fingerlings Maggot meal included from 12.5% to 100% Maggot meal was detrimental to growth at all levels (particularly at 100%) though nutrient utilization was less affected. Idowu et al., 2003
Nigeria Clarias anguillaris fingerlings Live maggots (100% of diet) or 1:1 mixture of live maggots and commercial diet Best growth performance and economic gain were obtained with the live maggots/commercial diet mixtures. Madu et al., 2003
Cote d'Ivoire Heterobranchus longifilis Comparison between soybean meal, cattle brain meal and maggot meal included at more than 80% Maggot meal gave better performance than soybean meal and lower performance than cattle brains. However, maggot meal was much less expensive than the latter feed  Ossey et al., 2012
Nigeria Heterobranchus longifilis (f) x Clarias gariepinus (m) Maggot meal replacing 0-100% fish meal (0-30% of diet) Best growth performance was obtained at 25% replacement (7.5% inclusion). 100% replacement (30%) was economically viable. Sogbesan et al., 2006

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

In Nile tilapia fed a 4:1 mixture of wheat bran and live maggots, the maggot-fed fish had a better growth performance, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and survival than fish fed wheat bran alone (Ebenso et al., 2003). In another experiment, maggot meal was included at 15 to 68% in the diet, replacing fish meal. The best performance and survival was obtained at 25% maggot meal in the diet. Maggot meal was found beneficial to fish growth and performance with no adverse or stress effects on the haematology and homeostasis. However, adequate sources of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids should be included to enhance the optimal fatty acid profile (Ogunji et al., 2007; Ogunji et al., 2008a; Ogunji et al., 2008b).

Crustaceans 

Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

In juvenile whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed diets containing housefly maggot meal, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio and productive protein value were maintained with diets where maggot meal replaced up to 60% fish meal. Specific growth rate tended to decrease with maggot meal inclusion. At substitution levels lower than 60% there were neither significant effects on digestive enzymes and transaminase activities nor serious injury to hepatopancreas histological structure, but higher levels were not recommended (Cao et al., 2012a; Cao et al., 2012b).

Chinese white shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and Japanese blue crab (Portunus trituberculatus)

In juvenile Chinese white shrimps (Fenneropenaeus chinensis), the addition of housefly maggot meal had positive effects of body length, body weight, specific growth rate and survival. An inclusion rate of 38%, and higher, resulted in higher growth. There were significantly lower contents of the essential fatty acids and higher polyunsaturated fatty acids in the muscles of the shrimp fed maggot meal (Zheng et al., 2010a). In a polyculture of Chinese white shrimps and Japanese blue crab (Portunus trituberculatus) fed a diet containing 30-50% housefly maggot meal, the yields of the shrimp and crab were 80% and 20% higher, respectively, than in the control pond. Survival rates for maggot-fed shrimps and crabs were 11% and 3% higher, respectively, than in the control pond. Shrimps and crabs fed the maggot meal diet had significantly higher body weight, especially in the mid- and late culture periods (Zheng et al., 2010b).

Other species 

Rats

Maggot meal included at 5% in the diets of young rats gave optimal weight gain and nutrient utilization (Bouafou et al., 2011a). However, including 10% maggot meal resulted in histological damage (fibrosis) in the liver and kidneys (Bouafou et al., 2011b).

Nutritional tables
Tables of chemical composition and nutritional value 

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 92.4 1.0 90.0 94.7 21  
Crude protein % DM 50.4 5.3 42.3 60.4 29  
Crude fibre % DM 5.7 2.4 1.6 8.6 19  
ADF % DM 13.8       1  
Ether extract % DM 18.9 5.6 9.0 26.0 25  
Ash % DM 10.1 3.3 6.2 17.3 27  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 22.9 1.4 20.1 24.4 7 *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 4.7 1.7 3.1 8.0 10  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 16.0 5.5 9.7 24.0 6  
Potassium g/kg DM 5.7 3.5 1.0 12.7 7  
Sodium g/kg DM 5.2 2.4 2.8 8.6 8  
Magnesium g/kg DM 3.4 4.0 0.7 11.5 6  
Manganese mg/kg DM 91 114 40 349 7  
Zinc mg/kg DM 119 118 43 325 7  
Copper mg/kg DM 27 6 18 36 7  
Iron mg/kg DM 995 440 275 1370 6  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 5.8 1.0 4.4 7.6 8  
Arginine % protein 4.6 0.7 3.7 5.8 9  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.5 1.5 4.5 8.5 7  
Cystine % protein 0.7 0.2 0.5 1.0 4  
Glutamic acid % protein 11.7 1.8 8.9 15.3 8  
Glycine % protein 4.2 0.4 3.7 5.1 8  
Histidine % protein 2.4 0.8 1.0 3.6 8  
Isoleucine % protein 3.2 0.5 2.3 3.7 8  
Leucine % protein 5.4 0.6 4.5 6.4 9  
Lysine % protein 6.1 0.9 5.0 8.2 9  
Methionine % protein 2.2 0.8 1.3 3.7 8  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.6 0.8 3.7 5.9 8  
Proline % protein 3.3 0.7 2.5 4.0 4  
Serine % protein 3.6 0.5 2.6 3.9 8  
Threonine % protein 3.5 0.7 2.0 4.1 8  
Tryptophan % protein 1.5   1.4 1.5 2  
Tyrosine % protein 4.7 1.4 2.9 7.1 7  
Valine % protein 4.0 1.1 1.3 4.9 9  
               
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Myristic acid C14:0 % fatty acids 5.5   4.1 6.8 2  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 32.4   26.7 38.0 2  
Palmitoleic acid C16:1 % fatty acids 17.1   8.3 25.9 2  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 3.4   2.3 4.4 2  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 21.8       1  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 16.4       1  
Gamma-linolenic acid C18:3 w-6 % fatty acids 2.0       1  
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AME poultry MJ/kg DM 16.1   14.2 17.9 2  
TME poultry MJ/kg DM 18.3       1  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Adesina et al., 2011; Adewolu et al., 2010; Akpodiete et al., 1997; Aniebo et al., 2008; Aniebo et al., 2010; Atteh et al., 1993; Awoniyi et al., 2003; Bamgbose, 1999; Cadag et al., 1981; Fasakin et al., 2003; Göhl, 1982; Hwangbo et al., 2009; Ocio et al., 1979; Odesanya et al., 2011; Ogunji et al., 2008; Ogunji et al., 2009; Okah et al., 2012; Pretorius, 2011; Sogbesan et al., 2006; Téguia et al., 2002; Zuidhof et al., 2003

Last updated on 22/07/2013 23:59:42

Main analysis Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Dry matter % as fed 92.1   88.1 96.1 2  
Crude protein % DM 70.8 5.3 65.7 76.2 3  
Crude fibre % DM 15.7       1  
Ether extract % DM 15.5 1.0 14.4 16.1 3  
Ash % DM 7.7 2.1 5.5 9.8 3  
Gross energy MJ/kg DM 24.3         *
               
Minerals Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Calcium g/kg DM 5.2       1  
Phosphorus g/kg DM 17.2       1  
Potassium g/kg DM 12.5       1  
Sodium g/kg DM 5.7       1  
Magnesium g/kg DM 8.2       1  
Manganese mg/kg DM 416       1  
Zinc mg/kg DM 363       1  
Copper mg/kg DM 38       1  
Iron mg/kg DM 258       1  
               
Amino acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Alanine % protein 4.2 0.2 4.1 4.4 3  
Arginine % protein 4.9 0.9 4.2 5.9 3  
Aspartic acid % protein 7.9 1.2 6.5 8.7 3  
Cystine % protein 0.4       1  
Glutamic acid % protein 10.2 2.1 7.8 12.0 3  
Glycine % protein 4.1 0.2 3.9 4.3 3  
Histidine % protein 2.0 0.8 1.1 2.6 3  
Isoleucine % protein 3.4 0.2 3.2 3.5 3  
Leucine % protein 5.2 0.3 4.9 5.4 3  
Lysine % protein 5.5 0.9 4.8 6.5 3  
Methionine % protein 2.0 0.6 1.5 2.6 3  
Phenylalanine % protein 4.2 0.5 3.7 4.7 3  
Proline % protein 3.4   3.1 3.7 2  
Serine % protein 3.1 0.4 2.7 3.4 3  
Threonine % protein 3.2 0.2 3.0 3.4 3  
Tyrosine % protein 4.9 0.4 4.6 5.3 3  
Valine % protein 4.2 0.7 3.4 4.6 3  
               
Fatty acids Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
Lauric acid C12:0 % fatty acids 0.4   0.2 0.6 2  
Myristic acid C14:0 % fatty acids 2.8 0.3 2.6 3.2 3  
Palmitic acid C16:0 % fatty acids 29.6 4.6 26.4 34.9 3  
Palmitoleic acid C16:1 % fatty acids 13.3 7.5 5.6 20.6 3  
Stearic acid C18:0 % fatty acids 3.2 1.4 2.2 4.8 3  
Oleic acid C18:1 % fatty acids 18.7   18.3 19.2 2  
Linoleic acid C18:2 % fatty acids 16.4   14.9 17.8 2  
Linolenic acid C18:3 % fatty acids 2.1       1  
               
Poultry nutritive values Unit Avg SD Min Max Nb  
AME poultry MJ/kg DM 15.1       1  

The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation.

References

Calvert et al., 1969; Pretorius, 2011; St-Hilaire et al., 2007

Last updated on 22/07/2013 23:57:34

References
References 
Datasheet citation 

Heuzé V., Tran G., 2015. Housefly maggot meal. Feedipedia, a programme by INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://feedipedia.org/node/671 Last updated on October 21, 2015, 11:30

English correction by Tim Smith (Animal Science consultant) and Hélène Thiollet (AFZ)
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